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of the Friends of the 



Volume XXV 

Edwin C. Bolles Matthias A. Shaaber 


Kenneth M. Setton Conway Zirkle 

Merrill G. Berthrong, Editor 

editorial assistants 

M. Elizabeth Shinn Elizabeth C. Borden 

Nancy S. Blake 



Richard H. Dillon 1 


The Secret Records of R. M, Bird 
Richard Harris 


Wyndham D. Miles 


Albert R. Schmitt 


Matthew Arnold at the University 
Neda Westlake 

The Gaiety of Matthew Arnold 
Arnold Whitridge 


William E. Miller 


John Morford 


Matti M. Rossi 


Jesse C. Mills 

Published semiannually by and for the Friends of the University of Pennsylvania 
Library. Distributed free to members of the Friends. Subscription rate for non- 
members: $3.00. 




Vol. XXV 

WINTER 1959 

No. 1 

Friends of the Library 


Edwin C. Bolles Matthias A. Shaaber 

Lessing J. Rosen WALD Robert E. Spiller 

Kenneth M. Setton Conway Zirkle 

Merrill G. Berthrong, Editor 

editorial assistants 
M. Elizabeth Shinn Elizabeth C. Borden 

Nancy S. Blake Elli R. Walter 



Richard H. Dillon 


The Secret Records of R. M. Bird 
Richard Harris 



Wyndham D. Miles 


Albert R. Schmitt 


Matthew Arnold at the University 
Neda Westlake 

The Gaiety of Matthew Arnold 
Arnold Whitridge 




Jesse C. Mills 

Published semiannually by and for the Friends of the University of Pennsylvania 
Library. Distributed free to members of the Friends. Subscription rate for non- 
members: $3.00. 

Artides and notes of bibliographical or bibliophile interest are invited. Con- 
tributions should be submitted to The Editor, The Library Chronicle, University of 
Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia 4, Pennsylvania. 

Sutro Library in Metamorphosis 

Richard H. Dillon 

THE Sutro Library is a branch of the CaHfornia State Library 
located in the San Francisco Public Library. Originally it was 
the private library of Adolph Sutro who collected it in the late nine- 
teenth century. It contained some 250,000 volumes and was one of the 
largest private libraries in the world until it suffered grievously in the 
San Francisco fire and earthquake of 1906 and lost half of its collection. 
The heirs of Sutro presented the Library to the State of California in 
1913. Its doors were opened to the public in 1917 and it was moved to 
its present location in 1923. 

We at Pennsylvania have a special interest in private libraries of this 
type as indicated by the Lea, Furness, and Edgar Fahs Smith libraries. 
There is a special affinity between the Sutro and the Edgar Fahs Smith 
collections in that they are both pre-eminently research libraries that 
have given special emphasis to science and technology. The time period 
covered in both libraries is likewise analogous — from the early modern 
period to the present — although the earliest material in the Sutro 
Library dates from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and the 
Smith collection starts with the late fifteenth century. However, the 
Edgar Fahs Smith Library has a more specialized collection since the 
founder restricted it to works on alchemy and chemistry. It is now a 
world-famous collection on these subjects and their history. The Sutro 
Library represents a more general approach. Adolph Sutro aimed at 
the creation of a superior and unique research library in science, tech- 
nology, and the humanities because of the lack of such a facility in the 
West. That he was successful to an outstanding degree is beyond dis- 
pute. We are indeed fortunate in having this opportunity of learning 
more about the Sutro Library. 

Richard Dillon is the Sutro Librarian and read this paper before the 
Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society at 
San Francisco in April of 1958. He has kindly consented to its publica- 
tion in this issue of the Library Chronicle. 


THE Journal of the American Medical Association for December 
21, 1957 devoted some attention to what it termed "medi- 
cine's happy accidents." The Journal reminded us of the experi- 
ence of Anton van Leeuwenhoek in casually focusing his magnify- 
ing glass on a drop of water — instead of upon the fly's leg which 
should have had his attention — and, as a result of his moment of 
distraction, discovering the science of bacteriology. Other ex- 
amples of "happy accidents" in medicine could be added — 
Louis Pasteur's unintentional inoculation of chickens with a stale 
cholera culture, or Fleming's absentmindedness in leaving a Petri 
dish uncovered and thereby uncovering the age of penicillin. 

We might well use the term "serendipity" in place of the words 
"happy accidents." This is the talent some people possess for 
finding something while searching for something else entirely. 
All of us know of examples in the field of chemistry. The same 
Journal of the American Medical Association referred to above re- 
called the "sweetest case of serendipity on record." When a 
chemist, who forgot to wash his hands before lunch, wondered 
about the sugary taste of his roast beef sandwich, he rushed back 
to his lab to discover saccharine. 

Serendipity affects all disciplines and professions, including 
librarianship. For instance, the reason for San Francisco's posses- 
sion of a little-known but potentially great historical research 
collection in Sutro Library is serendipity, in some measure. 

While Sutro Library is probably never going to be a great 
library in the history of chemistry, it is going to be better-known 
and more-used because of the riches it does have in this field as 
well as in some dozens of other areas of historical interest. Why? 
For the simple reason that California and the Far West, like it or 
not, are still on the bibliographical frontier. We live in a book- 
poor area, despite the great growth of the Pacific Coast. The 
librarians of both the University of California and the University 
of California at Los Angeles have commented publicly on the 
shortcomings of the West in terms of reference and research 
collections. The Sutro Library can be of great help in correcting 
this situation, in the field of the history of science, including 
chemistry, as well as in other areas. We can thank the founder, 
Adolph Sutro, not only for the care with which he selected works 


for the Library but also bless him for his serendipity, his "uncon- 
scious collecting," if you will. 

To return again to our term, serendipity, and its definition. 
The Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "the faculty of making 
happy and unexpected discoveries by accident." The word was 
coined by Horace Walpole circa 1754. Walpole took it from a 
fairy tale titled The Three Princes of Serendip (Serendip, like 
Taprobane, being an archaic name for Ceylon); these three 
fellows, in the words of Walpole, "were always making discoveries 
by accident and sagacity, of things they were not in quest of." 
Surely Adolph Sutro's acquisition of so much Victorian ephem- 
era, to cite but one example, is a tribute to his serendipity. 

The story of the Sutro Library is, necessarily, the story of but 
one man, Adolph Sutro. Born in 1830 in what was then Aix-la- 
Chapelle, France, and which is now Aachen, Germany, Sutro 
had a normal European boyhood but was thrust early into the 
business world. By the time he was in his teens he was in charge 
of his father's cloth factory in the Baltic port city of Memel. 

The year 1848 has been called "the Year of Decision" by 
Bernard deVoto, referring to the United States. It was a year of 
revolution in Europe and it proved to be a year of personal deci- 
sion for Adolph Sutro. The family's fortunes having been ruined by 
a financial "recession" which followed on the heels of the political 
disturbances in Germany, he determined to emigrate to America. 

The Sutros arrived in the United States in 1851 and, almost 
immediately, Adolph was en route to the gold fields of California 
to seek his fortune. When he arrived in San Francisco he was a 
poor immigrant boy with no more capital than his youth and a 
carefully-hoarded stock of tobacco and cigars which he slept 
beside on a pool table in a waterfront saloon the first night he 
was in town. Within a few years he was a booming success in what 
he called "petty trade," mainly the tobacco business. 

About 1859 his interest was seized by the newly-discovered 
Comstock silver mines of the Virginia City area of Nevada. He 
visited them and found that there was great danger of their being 
shut down by drainage problems. A vast quantity of water was 
trapped in the shafts, steadily flooding the workings. Sutro 
grappled boldly with the problem and conceived a great horizon- 


tal tunnel which would not only drain the mines but would also 
ventilate them, allow the quick removal of ore to the Carson 
River stamp mills, and provide an escape tunnel for workmen in 
case of fire. 

His plan was so good that the very men who first supported him 
were soon turning on him as a rival in the "Comstock empire." 
The "Silver Kings"— Mackay, Flood, Fair and O'Brien— and 
the "Bank Ring" of Ralston and Sharon — wanted no further 
"divvying" of the profits so they tried to ruin him by delaying the 
project and then taking it over themselves. They fought him in 
the mines, in the banks and in the halls of Congress, where Sutro 
sought aid, but they lost. 

Sutro built his tunnel, one of the man-made wonders of the 
world. Begun on October 19, 1869, the Sutro Tunnel — nine 
miles long when its north and south laterals are included — was 
not finished until July 1878. The entrance of this great engineer- 
ing feat can still be seen near Dayton, Nevada. The tunnel itself 
should be of interest to anyone concerned with the history of 
science and technology. 

Adolph Sutro retired from his Sutro Tunnel Company in 1870 
a rich man. He took a round-the-world trip in which he renewed 
his interest in books and libraries. About this time he evolved his 
plan for a great library patterned after the British Museum. 

Sutro was not content to be remembered by the size of his bank 
account or by a hole in the ground in Nevada. He wanted his 
monument to be a living, immortal organism — a library. He 
therefore set out to build the greatest private library in the world. 
And he succeeded admirably. By the time this untutored biblio- 
phile and his book agents were through, in the 1 890's, the Sutro 
Library contained approximately 250,000 volumes. 

It must not be thought that Adolph Sutro built this great 
library out of mere rich man's vanity. He could have had a far 
cheaper yet more impressive monument (at least in the eyes of 
hoi polloi) in some memorial tower, fountain or pile of sculpture. 
But Sutro was a genuine philanthropist. He stated his case to the 
press in 1885: 

"The wealth of man can only be enjoyed a short portion of the 
immeasurable span of time. Wealth cannot be taken away with 


us and wealth can be the fruitful cause of trouble among relatives 
and dear friends after we have gone. I resolved to devote some 
portion of my wealth for the benefit of the people among whom 
I have so long labored. I first resolved to collect a library, a 
library for reference. Not a library of various book curiosities 
but a library which should compare with any in the world. I have 
a gentleman in England whose sole business it is to purchase all 
such valuable books, and I can assure you that it causes in Eng- 
land no little feeling of jealousy to have taken away from her 
shores such valuable works, and especially to so barbarous a place 
as California." 

There was good reason for Sutro to put together a library. In 
1879 the University of California Library was a decade old but 
totalled only 80,000 volumes. The city of San Francisco had not 
even begun work on a public library. There was a real need for 
a research library on the Coast. 

Sutro bought books himself and commissioned agents to scour 
the bookmarts of the world. In the year 1884 alone, three hundred 
and thirty-five cases of his books arrived in San Francisco. In 
1889 Sutro told a friend that he had literally walked waist-deep 
in books in a Mexico City warehouse. Needless to say, he bought 
the whole lot. 

Robert Cowan, the San Francisco bookseller and bibliog- 
rapher, described Sutro's shopping methods thus: 

"He had a queer way of buying, which was particularly suc- 
cessful in Italy. He'd go into a bookshop and see ten or fifteen 
thousand volumes, mostly in pigskin or parchment. He'd ask 
how much was wanted per volume for the whole collection. 
Perhaps the dealer would say 'four lire.' He'd offer two lire and 
get the whole stock; and usually it would be a bargain. Or, he'd 
go to the old monasteries and ask the monks to sell their old 
treasures. They'd refuse, whereupon he'd draw from his pocket 
handfuls of American gold and the impoverished monks would 
yield. These methods of buying account for the enormous, hetero- 
geneous mass of books in the Sutro Collection." 

Sutro bought in many fields. It might be easier to say there 
were a few fields in which he did not particularly collect: chil- 
dren's books, the fiction of his day, art and music. 


We are not sure of all the treasures which Sutro did acquire by 
the time of his death in 1898. The estate was tied up in the courts 
and the library remained in storage. On April 18, 1906, the great 
San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed all the libraries in 
the city with the exception of the Sutro Library, but it wiped out 
more than half of that collection. About 91,000 volumes re- 

In 1913 the Sutro Library was given to the State of California 
as a San Francisco Branch of the State Library. The doors were 
opened to the public in 1917 and the Library has served (with 
little publicity and with inadequate quarters in the Public 
Library building) a growing clientele. 

The Sutro Library is a unique institution. It is a public, his- 
torical reference and research library. It is open to all, and unlike 
many of the libraries most similar to it — Newberry or Hunting- 
ton, for example — it has a liberal interlibrary loan policy. 
Strong points in the collection include: Hebraica, voyages and 
travels, English history, American history, genealogy, local 
history, incunabula, Shakesperiana, theology and philosophy, 
and the history of science. 

Sutro built up what was for the 1880's an outstanding reference 
library in both the humanities and science. But the passage of 
time, the destruction by the 1906 holocaust, and the effect of 
Sutro's serendipity have "metamorphosed" the collection. Even 
the most up-to-date works on hydraulics, let us say, of Sutro's day 
may now be avidly sought by the student of the history of science. 
Thus, a title like Prony's Architecture Hydraulique for reference and 
loan is of great value in our "book-poor" West. 

Even more interesting than the recognized classics in the his- 
tory of science, like the works of Boerhaave, Accum, Chaptal, 
Orfila, and Davy, on exhibit in the Library, are the ephemeral 
pamphlets on science and technology which Sutro acquired 
accidentally, as it were, and which do much to fill us in on the 
thought and technique in these fields a hundred or two hundred 
years ago. The time is ripe for an exploration of the 25,000 Eng- 
lish pamphlets of the period 1640-1890 in the Sutro collection, 
particularly the 10,000 or so for the 19th Century, for their inter- 
pretation of the Industrial Revolution and the Age of Experi- 


mentation. No one knows just what treasures may lie among 
these pamphlets. In science they cover every subject from rail- 
roads to smog to chemistry. 

An additional trove is the Sir Joseph Banks Manuscript Collec- 
tion, an archive of some 10,000 papers — approximately 100,000 
pages of unique material — which documents scientific life in 
England at the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 
19th. Again, we are not sure just what treasures lurk in these 
papers, for the collection is less than half catalogued. It is obvious 
that Sir Joseph Banks' scientific interests were more in the line 
of agriculture, botany or zoology than chemistry and physics, yet 
the one researcher who has explored the Banks Papers in search 
of history of science material turned up original, unpublished 
manuscripts by or about such men as Davy, Batt, Henry, and 

It is obvious that the picture is changing at Sutro Library. At 
present, the Library is known as an active reference library in the 
fields of genealogy and local history, with many rare books and 
ancient manuscripts of great value but of limited appeal because 
of their specialization. Not yet completely explored, much less 
appreciated, is the Sutro Library's ability to serve students in one 
of the newest disciplines to be honored in American university 
curricula — the history of science. However, the "prospecting" 
which has been done so far leads one to believe that some rich 
"strikes" may be made in Sutro Library if one is willing to do a 
bit of bibliographic digging. 


A Young Dramatist's Diary: 
The Secret Records of R. M. Bird' 

Richard Harris* 


The Secret Records, a sporadically-kept and short-lived journal of 
Robert Montgomery Bird, the nineteenth-century American dramatist, 
is an important document in the history of the American theatre. 
Recording his personal doubts and frustrations, the young author puts 
before the reader the necessary dangers and limited rewards of the 
dramatic author. 

Bird, who lived from 1806-1854, spent most of his life in Philadelphia 
(graduating from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 
1827), where he saw Edwin Forrest, the famous American actor, pro- 
duce his notable tragedies The Gladiator, Oralloossa, and The Broker oj 
Bogota. In 1915, his grandson gave the Bird manuscripts to the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. The plays were subsequently published by 
Clement Foust and Edward O'Neill, both of the University. The Secret 
Records is to be found in the Bird Collection, f 

In April, 1831, Bird had finished the final draft of The Gladiator, and 
had sent it off to Forrest for final approval. Between this time and the 
play's opening on September 26th, Bird, perhaps exhausted by his work 
and occupied by second thoughts as to the play's quality (the first play 
he submitted to Forrest — Pelopidas — was accepted, but not produced), 
began his journal on August 27th, a month before his famous play 
opened, and finished it before the year was out. Although there are but 
three entries in the journal — August 27th, October 26th, and December 
14th — it is probable that Bird set down his thoughts more often than 
that. The abrupt shifts in subject matter seem to indicate that the writer 
put his thoughts down whenever he felt the need. It was a casual per- 
formance, too; otherwise one would expect him, for example, to record 
the opening of The Gladiator immediately. Instead, he gives notice of it 

* Richard Harris, author of "From the Papers of R. M. Bird: The Lost Scene 
from News of the Night" appearing in the Winter 1958 issue of the Library Chronicle, is 
currently a lecturer in the Department of Speech and Theatre at Indiana University. 

t The Bird Collection consists of 25 bound manuscript volumes of Bird's plays 
and 13 boxes of manuscripts, correspondence, political speeches, and financial 
records. The variety of the material provides an opportunity, not only to investigate 
the technique of a nineteenth-century dramatist, but also to explore the relation- 
ships of playwrights, actors, and producers of the American stage of the period. "The 
Life of Robert Montgomery Bird" by his wife Mary Mayer Bird was edited by 
C. Seymour Thompson and appeared in five installments of the Library Chronicle in 
1944-1945 (vol. 12, no. 3-vol. 13, no. 3). This hitherto unpublished manuscript 
forms a part of the Bird Collection. 


one month later, under the second "entry." Likewise, under the 
December entry, he refers to a review written in November. 

Of more importance, however, than his manner of writing are the 
various subjects which Bird touches upon throughout the seven-page 
manuscript. Two main divisions should be mentioned: those passages 
written before the opening of The Gladiator and those written after. 
Before this event, Bird is almost morbid with regret and frustration; he 
touches upon his lack of success at his age of twenty-five, and seems to 
place the blame for this lack of success squarely on the audience, for 
their lack of understanding, their vulgarity, their provincialism, and 
their love for romantic novels. After the opening of the play he seems 
more confident, but at the same time becomes exasperated with per- 
formers, critics, and audience alike. 

Was Bird justified, in the earlier part of the journal, in making these 
depositions regarding the American public? There is a great deal of 
evidence to show that he was. From the earliest times in Colonial 
America, there had been not only a puritanical prejudice against 
theatrical enterprises, but also an attitude of hostility and contempt for 
the theatre on the part of other literary men.^ In 1757, "The Anti- 
gallican," an essayist speaking of the introduction of operas and plays 
into the Colonies, says forthrightly, "If, in this detach'd quarter of the 
globe, we are, as yet, strangers to these names, and to the things meant 
by them, 'tis one circumstance of our felicity. May we always continue 
to be so!"^ What compounded the trouble on the American scene, how- 
ever, was the preference on the part of that public who did go to the 
theatre for tried and trusted English plays, a preference that also ex- 
tended to English novels. A contemporary writer summarizes the situa- 
tion succintly: "The writers of America have no encouragement what- 
ever to venture upon the drama. The managers of the theatres, like the 
book publishers, cannot afford, of course, to give an American author 
anything for a play when they can get a better one, by every arrival, 
Jor nothing— aher it has been cast for the London stage, and passed the 
ordeal.""* Thus, the public's contempt and the publishers' freedom, 
occasioned by the absence of copyright laws covering foreign authors, 
combined to frustrate the expression of a native American drama. Even 
when a native playwright was fortunate enough to have a play pro- 
duced, he had no further rights over it, since the actor or manager 
possessed the play by right of performance. Any financial return usually 
took the form of a third night benefit, which amounted to little more 
than a charitable contribution.^ 

Bird himself, in a manuscript fragment entitled "The Decline of 
Drama," analyzes the problem more dispassionately than he does in 
The Secret Records. He lists three causes contributing to this decline. In 
the first place, there is ". . . the increased independence (in spirit as 
well as pocket) . . . of authors, whose pride . . . will not allow them 


to submit their works to the arbitration of ignorance and brutality . . ." 
of the audience, or to "the maHce and meanness of critics. . . ." 
Secondly, he says, "It is only in the theatre, that genius is at the mercy 
of the mob." Thirdly, he explains that other literary employments — 
annuals, magazines, and newspapers — offer more rewards.^ Cultivated 
individuals of the time, having no professional interest in the theatre, 
were aware of these problems, and were content to read their drama at 
home rather than venture forth to the theatre. Sydney Fisher, a Phila- 
delphian of Bird's time, says rather shortly, "I detest the theatre, the 
crowd of horrid vulgar people disgusts me, and the wretched per- 
formance of most of the actors except the 'star' of the evening destroys 
the pleasure one would otherwise feel in seeing a good character well 
played. I rejoice that I have never seen any of Shakespear's finer plays, 
on the stage. I can read them without the disturbing associations & 
recollections of vulgar acting, & stage effect."'' Therefore, snobbish 
audiences, unappreciative critics, tightfisted managers, and arbitrary 
copyright laws — all of these conspired to make the road of the aspiring 
young dramatist a path of thorny brambles indeed. 

In another passage in the diary written prior to the opening of his 
play. Bird makes reference to a slave revolt taking place in Virginia. 
This revolt was, of course, the famous rebellion of Nat Turner, the 
evangelistic and fanatical slave, who wanted to start a world-wide 
emancipation of slaves. Since Bird finished The Gladiator in April, and 
Turner did not begin his revolt until August 20th, one cannot make the 
claim that Turner's rebellion was the immediate inspiration for Bird's 
play, itself a story of revolt in the days of the later Roman Republic. 
There had been a multitude of uprisings however, which could have 
influenced Bird— no less than 153 from the earliest times in America 
through 1831— among them the extensively organized revolt of Den- 
mark Vesey in 1 822, after which forty-seven slaves were condemned to 
the gallows.^ This is not the place to discuss the exact motives which led 
to these insurrections. It is enough to say that while Bird championed 
the cause of individual liberty among the enslaved gladiators of ancient 
Rome, he looked upon the institution of slavery in his own country with 
a mixture of tolerance and dread. Thus, when he says, in The Secret 
Records, that if the play were performed in the South he "would be re- 
warded with the Penitentiary!" he realizes the implications his play 
has for his own countrymen.^ 

Bird's discussion after the opening of The Gladiator falls into three 
main divisions: the kind of performance his play has been given, its re- 
ception by the critics, and the proper attributes of the poet. As to the 
performance of the play, he gives it short shrift: "It was a horrible piece 
of bungling from beginning to end." This was not unusual in the 
American theatre of the time. Stage design, costuming, and lighting 
were primitive, inadequate, and far below the unified standards of the 


twentieth century. Pieces of scenery were of stock and stereotyped 
design— set pieces handed down from one production to another in the 
same theatre, or carried for years in the management's trunks. Gas 
lighting afforded dim and hazardous illumination. The actors them- 
selves were responsible for their costumes and, likely as not, these gar- 
ments were hand-me-downs, ill-suited to the tone of the play or the 
period of presentation. Indeed, it was not long before this that, in 
England, David Garrick and Mrs. Siddons had played in Macbeth 
wearing eighteenth-century brocade. The acting itself, with the excep- 
tion of the "stars," was also of an inferior quality. In those far-off days, 
the actor was on his own to learn his trade— and it was, in most cases, 
strictly a trade— as best he could, in a repertoire company, and, if he 
were lucky enough, in the company of a "star." If he were recognized 
as possessing those indefinable qualities which constitute the make-up 
of the real actor, he would be elevated to leading roles, an event which 
did not happen frequently. For the most part, men and women were 
condemned to spend their lives strutting through small parts, never 
attaining renown. This, then, was the cursus honorum of acting, a chaotic 
yet exacting tradition which still obtains to a large extent. 

The one exception Bird makes in his condemnation of the company 
is the acting of Edwin Forrest, "... undoubtedly the best man for 
Spartacus in Christendom. ..." Forrest, a native American and a 
sponsor of plays by American authors, was about the same age as Bird, 
and had attained to his present position in the theatre through working 
in and touring with various repertoire companies. The greatness of his 
acting consisted mainly in the display of his physical powers. William 
Winter gives a very good description of these: 

From the first, and until the last, his acting was saturated with "realism," and 
that was one reason of his extensive popularity. He could at all times be seen, 
heard, and understood. He struck with a sledge-hammer. Not even nerves of 
gutta-percha could remain unshaken by his blow. In the manifestation of terror 
he lolled out his tongue, contorted his visage, made his frame quiver, and used 
the trick sword with the rattling hilt. In scenes of fury he panted, snorted, and 
snarled, like a wild beast. In death scenes his gasps and gurgles were protracted 
and painfully literal. . . }^ 

Physically, the role of Spartacus, the gladiator who shook the Roman 
Republic to its foundations and caused the deaths of thousands, was 
admirably suited to Forrest. While the part of Spartacus does contain 
spiritual depths, Forrest seems to have subordinated them in the inter- 
ests of pure spectacle. It may be, perhaps, that he was unequal to inter- 
preting these spiritual qualities, for in his production of Bird's later 
play, The Broker of Bogota, he did not achieve the same renown, inter- 
preting a character who asserts himself rather through will than by 


means of any physical prowess; consequently, the latter play did not 
hold as firm a place in his repertoire as The Gladiator. 

Bird's second consideration in the latter part of his journal lies with 
the critics, whom he seems to consider inadequate in their tasks. In this 
charge. Bird again comes near to the heart of the matter. At least one 
or two other contemporary journalists were aware of the problems of 
dramatic criticism in America, and were not afraid to analyze them. 
Gould lists as the causes of the low state of criticism: (1) the practice of 
authors of giving complimentary copies to critics, (2) critical indulgence 
for personal friends, (3) leniency toward colleagues on the same journal, 
(4) the fear of offending authors' admirers, (5) the desire to encourage 
American literature, and (6) indolence." If one adds to these character- 
istics puritanical and provincial prejudice, the critical picture becomes 
gloomy indeed. As another writer expressed it, "A newspaper criticism 
is generally a puff or a libel — either an extravagant eulogy or a violent 
attack. "^2 It is not entirely true, as Fisher states, that Bird was "damned 
with faint praise." The Gladiator was generally praised, but in effusive 
and superficial terms. Contemporary criticism favored spectacle and the 
emphatic statement of moral truth, while fidelity to historical events 
was also ranked high among critics conditioned by those scholastically 
imposing novels compiled by Sir Walter Scott. 

While many critics merely comment neutrally upon the enthusiasm 
of the audience, others choose to commit themselves and go into some 
detail and, almost without exception, acclaim Bird's play. One reviewer 
is particularly enthusiastic when he claims that The Gladiator is ''Hhe best 
native tragedy extant^'' and that "It bears the stamp of genius in every 
lineament." He even thinks that all the actors did a good job !^^ Another 
critic says that Bird has ". . . wrought up a Drama of intense interest, 
without in the least violating probabilities." "The characters," he con- 
tinues, "are drawn with spirit; each speaks in accordance with the feel- 
ings and passions natural to his respective situation, thereby preserving 
a perfect individuality."^* Still another chooses to compare Bird's play 
with English plays, stating that "In point of scenic effect, we consider 
the Gladiator as quite equal to Virginius or Brutus, while as a dramatic 
composition it certainly surpasses either."^^ The critics in the Boston 
papers continue in the same vein, complimenting the "beautiful 
passages," "noble sentiments," "intense passion," and "hurried 
action. "^^ A Philadelphia critic was careful to note that while Bird has 
drawn largely from his imagination, ". . . he has adhered with strict- 
ness to historical truth in all its details. "^^ 

There were, however, unfavorable comments. Several reviews refer 
to the critic in the New York Courier who says that "in his opinion 
[the play] was damned." Another New York critic maintains that the 
interest of the play ". . . lies chiefly in the two first acts."^^ Other re- 
viewers find fault with occasional turns of phrase, the superfluity of some 


characters, some mispronunciation on Forrest's part, and (perhaps 
most significantly) the fact that Forrest seems to have omitted some 
important Hnes from the last scene, causing "a lame and impotent con- 
clusion." Many of the reviewers quote extensively from the play, having 
thought, perhaps, that this method of filling out a column of newsprint 
not only amplified their critical reputations but accomplished the job 
of "analyzing" the play. But the contrast between superficial extrava- 
gance on the one hand and terse and picayune faultfinding on the 
other — the common practice of the day — must have been frustrating 
not only for Bird, but for his fellow dramatists as well. It is small wonder 
then that native playwrights felt cheated when their works received 
such "commendation." 

One critical remark by the reviewer of the New England Galaxy, who 
says that closet drama is a higher type than stage drama, particularly 
rankled in Bird's mind. It was apparently the spur which drove him on 
to his final discussion and the end of his diary. In this part Bird attempts 
to outline those qualities which constitute the make-up of genius. As it 
turns out, the attempt is only a mere suggestion, but it serves to show, 
through a number of references. Bird's acquaintance with the critical 
ideas of his time. As an introduction to this discussion, Bird maintains 
that it requires more talent to write a stage play than a closet drama — 
a great deal more, judging from his irritation. It is difficult to say today 
just what Bird's contemporaries considered as diff"erences between 
closet drama and stage drama, considering the fact that nearly all 
critical theory up to Bird's time depended for its interpretation upon 
literary drama, whether staged or not. Perhaps romantic theory, which 
was just gaining momentum in Bird's college days, held that effective 
stage presentation depended — at least in England and America — more 
upon spectacle than upon character or thought. The history of the 
American theatre in the nineteenth century seems to bear this out. 

Bird next makes the distinction between the "faculty of effect" and 
the "faculty of poetry," saying that the latter is superior to the former; 
and he goes on to analyze the case of Otway. Here can be seen his ac- 
quaintance with Coleridge's critical ideas. Coleridge's Lectures on 
Shakespeare were printed from 1808 to 1811-12, and it is highly probable 
that Bird came in contact with these writings sometime before 1831. 
Coleridge held that genius and imagination should be distinguished 
from the lower faculties of talent and fancy respectively, for while the 
first are unifying and reconciling, the latter are merely combinatory, 
and thus "mechanistic, associationist."^^ Another idea which perhaps 
motivated Bird was Coleridge's theory of organic unity — that "lan- 
guage, passion, and character must act and react on each other."^" 
This probably is the reason that Bird believed that Otway's works are 
greater than certain works of Byron and Coleridge — not because 
Otway's poetic faculty was greater than theirs, but because he possessed 


the dramatic faculty in addition to the poetic. In other words, he pos- 
sessed that quaUty of "fusion" (Coleridge's term) which the others 

Bird is careful to make a reservation — an important one — that an 
artist may have one faculty in "admirable perfection" which sets him 
apart from others of his kind. He says he has "no business" with this 
question; he seems to intimate that genius cannot be measured arith- 
metically; to do so is reasoning fallaciously. Thus, Bird's reservation 
constitutes a saving grace in his argument. He further states that a good 
dramatist must be ranked over a good poet. While this may seem valid, 
and is even true in some actual cases (Sophocles and Shakespeare, for 
example), the idea is simply not universally true. The point was hotly 
debated by the romantics in the early nineteenth century. 

In editing The Secret Records, the author has followed the original 
manuscript throughout, while spelling and punctuation have been 
normalized. Words added by the author are indicated by brackets, and 
occasional notes have been inserted for clarity. 



August 27th, 1831. 

"Quaestori ulterior Hispania obvenit: ubi, cum mandato 
praetoris jure dicundo conventus circumiret, Gadeisque venisset, 
animadversa apud Herculis templum Magni Alexandri imagine, 
ingemuit; et, quasi pertaesus ignaviam suam, quad nihil dum a 
se memorabile actum esset in aetate, qua jam Alexander orbem 
terrarum subegisset, missionem continue efflagitavit, ad captan- 
das quam primum majorum rerum occasiones in urbe." 

Sueton[ius] in Vit[a] Caesaris, 7^^ 

The foregoing passage I never read without melancholy — not 
from any very great sympathy with Caesar's insignificance, but 
because it reminds me more strongly of my own. "The mightiest 
Julius" could ponder with a sad and humbled mind over the 
wealthy years of youth squandered without returning him the 
profits of honour and distinction; and I am enough like Caesar 
to do the same. I have lived more than twenty-five years in the 
world, and have done nothing — nothing but hope. I see my com- 
panions pressing onwards with spirit, and gaining wealth and 
reputation — at least some of them — and I, whose desires and 
aspirations carry me in thought beyond them, remain behind, 
stationary, obscure, unnoticed. Twenty-five years wasted in 
castle-building! Me miserum! I have raised structures enough — 
lovely, grand, fantastic, celestial — to build a city for the Fairy 
Queen; but a single thought of Caesar sighing at the marble feet 
of the Conqueror, and I am among the vapours that formed my 
fabrics — fine vapours indeed, but without their former sunshine — 
fogs, fogs, fogs. 

I envy no boy his precocity; but a man's is another matter. 
Congreve began at 19, and wrote his last play at 25. Sheridan 
produced The Rivals at 22, and at 25 has written The School for 
Scandal}'^ At [22], Campbell had published the Pleasures of Hope; 
and at [24], Byron had become as immortal as Childe Harold. 
Glorious instances these and very ridiculous for me to talk about 
them. But all men are vain in their closets; and those who are 
most ashamed they have done nothing, are perhaps the most 
easily comforted with this hope of amending. 


I wrote The Gladiator just on the Eve of my 25th year; but can 
have no satisfaction in noting its birth, till I can form some 
augury of the length of its life. To be sure, folks talk as agreeably 
as they can, particularly those who know the least about it. "Ah 
my dear Sir, I see you are coming out. Glad of it — am sure you'll 
have great success." And yet that ass hasn't seen a line of the 
play; and if he had, couldn't understand it. Men don't know how 
to flatter: The women are better at it. I am disposed to be 
sanguine enough — that is my temperament. But I have just been 
staring hard at the world, and the view chills my anticipations. 
I see W. a worthy fellow educated to a liberal profession. He was 
ambitious, and although modest in all his deportment, thought, 
or hoped himself a genius. He was infatuated with the stage, and 
converted his passion into a talent for it; he admired Lord Byron 
and Shakespeare, and mistook his admiration for genius. He 
sacrificed his profession and made a debut, intending, as soon as 
well introduced to the public, to produce plays of his own writing, 
acted by himself. His acting was a failure. He has gone to England 
with a play and that will be a failure. I see others making similar 
mistakes. Why may not I? And yet, as Melpomene^^ has vanished 
from the Old World — to be instrumental in naturalizing her in 
the New — and to have Englishmen re-publishers for American 
dramatists ! Such things may be thought of in secret. 

Our theatres are in a lamentable condition, and not at 
fashionable. To write for, and be admired by the groundling 
villains, that will clap most, when you are most nonsensical, and 
applaud you most heartily when you are most vulgar ! that will call 
you "a genius, by G. . . .," when you can make the judicious 
grieve, and "a witty devil," when you can force a woman to 
blush! Fine, fine, fine, fine. But consider the freedom of an 
American author. If The Gladiator were produced in a slave 
state, the managers, players, and perhaps myself into the bargain, 
would be rewarded with the Penitentiary ! Happy States ! At this 
present moment there are 6 or 800 armed negroes marching 
through Southampton County, Virginia, murdering, ravishing, 
and burning those whom the Grace of God has made their 
owners — 70 killed, principally women and children. If they had 
but a Spartacus among them — to organize the half million of 



Virginia, the hundreds of thousands of the states, and lead them 
on in the Crusade of Massacre, what a blessed example might 
they not give to the world of the excellence of slavery ! what a 
field of interest to the playwriters of posterity! Some day we 
shall have it, and future generations will perhaps remember the 
horrors of Haiti as a farce compared with the tragedies of our 
own happy land ! The vis et amor sceleratus habendP'^ will be repaid, 
violence with violence, and avarice with blood. I had sooner live 
among bedbugs than negroes. 

N.B. The men were at a Camp Meeting. Had they stayed at 
home minding their own business, instead of God's, this thing 
would not have happened. ^^ 

But the play, the play— Ay, the play's the thing. What a fool 
I was to think of writing plays ! To be sure, they are much wanted. 
But these novels are much easier sorts of things, and immortalize 
one's pocket much sooner. A tragedy takes, or should take, as 
much labour as two romances; and one comedy as much as six 
tragedies.-*^ How blessedly and lazily, in making a novel, a man 
may go spinning and snoring over his quires! here scribbling 
acres of fine vapid dialogue, and there scrawling out regions of 
descriptions about roses and old weather-beaten houses. I think 
I could manufacture a novel every quarter. But to be set down 
in brotherhood with the asses that are doing these sort of things; 
and a hundred years hence, have my memory covered in three 
lines of a Biographical Dictionary, as one of the herd of liars of 
the last century! I had sooner be pickled with navy pork, and 
eaten as soon as I was preserved. And yet the alternative — to be 
chronicled with such fellows as Thiel, and Knowles, and Payne, 
and Peake^^ — How monosyllabic we dramatists be! But our 
genius is as diminutive as our names. Nevertheless, a dramatist 
deserves honour far above a romancer — any thing Mr. Godwin 
says to the contrary notwithstanding; and the qualities necessary 
to one who would write a first-rate play would, if concentred in 
one individual, make him almost a god.^^ 

He should have, in the first place, invention, which is the rarest 
and noblest species of imagination; imagination itself, or in other 
words, poetic fancy, and with this he should have common sense. 
He should possess the sanguine and fiery ardour of an oriental, 


with the phlegmatic judgement of a German; he should be in 
himself capable of feeling, in the extremes, all the passions which 
elevate and debase, which subdue and torture the mind; and at 
the same time should mingle with them a cold-blooded and re- 
straining philosophy. He should be familiar with the world and 
have, by intuition (for that is the only way for a poet to get it, 
though folks don't know it), a thorough knowledge of human 
nature. He should in short be at once a poet, orator, wit and 
philosopher. And in fine, he should be able to carry on two kinds 
of operations in his mind, at one and the same time — that is, 1 
to create^ and to fancy his creations acting. These are a few of the 
qualities necessary to a dramatist; and one may easily see how i 
impossible it is for them all to be in possession of one man. 

October 26th 

Sept [ember] 26th at the Park Theatre, New York, The Gladiator 
was performed for the first time. That evening there fell such 
torrents of rain as had not visited New York for 15 or 20 y[ea]rs. 
Nevertheless, the house was crammed — the amount being about 
1400 dol[lar]s. The Park Company is the most wretched in the 
country. Last summer, the managers promised to get up the play 
with some sort of splendour. But Mr. Price came home; and I 
suppose it was he that caused them to break their word. There 
never was a play more miserably got up — old dresses, old scenes — 
many of them full of absurdities — and to crown all, the per- 
formers, with but one or two exceptions, were horribly imperfect. 
If there had been a wish among the managers to have the play 
damned, they could not have taken a better course. Some folks 
give them credit for this amiable wish; but as for myself, I think 
they were simply indifferent about it, thinking, as a matter of 
course, it would follow the fate of most other American plays. It 
was a horrible piece of bungling from beginning to end. And 
such performers ! Such a Julia ! such a Florus ! such lanistae! and 
etc. Nevertheless, and surprising to be said, it was very much 
applauded, which circumstance, I suppose, put the actors upon \ 
studying their parts more and playing better. i 

Next morning, Mr, Webbe, of the Courier and Inquirer, made a 
savage attack upon the piece, saying it was damned. This was the 


first paper I saw. I wonder if Mr. Webbe understands the mean- 
ing of the phrase "to thrust an iron into one's soul?" He used a 
note of admiration, too, after the "damned" — (damned!) as if he 
desired to show exultation! — Nice man! To gratify a pique against 
Mr. Forrest, he was wilHng to give me a stab; and he did it. But 
I forgive him; for his condemnation was a blunder, which, to- 
gether with his attempt to back out of it, did the play so much 
good, by exciting more curiosity, that I was at last able to laugh 
instead of frowning at Mr. Webbe. Nevertheless he is a scoundrel. 
The Gladiator was enacted 4 times at New York, to good houses; 
and was more and more applauded every successive night, be- 
cause every successive night the actors were so much the more 
perfect. All the editors praised it, and even the rascal, Webbe, 
allowed he was delighted with the "bold imagery and beautiful 
language," and be hanged to him. 

The Epilogue was well done by Mrs. Sharpe.^^ 
October 24th was its first night in Philad[elphia]. The jam of 
visitors was tremendous; hundreds returning without being able 
to get seats or stands. An American feeling was beginning" to show 
itself in all theatrical matters. The managers of the Arch St. 
Theatre were Americans, all their chief performers were Ameri- 
can, and the play was written by an American. The play was 
very well got up "considering" — new dresses, scenes and etc. It 
was played with a roar of applause, and bravoed to the echo. All 
which was comfortable enough. Played 4 times [to] full houses. 
Forrest is undoubtedly the best man for Spartacus in Christen- 
dom; in which his figure and physi[que] show to the best ad- 
vantage, and his voice and muscle hold out to the last. I think no 
other man could sustain the labours of the part. Scott is a most 
excellent Phasarius, and makes amends for not always being 
perfect to a letter in the text, by going to the business with a will, 
which tells as favourably for himself as for the author. He gives great 
effect to the crucifixion speech, expressing such a mixture of terror 
and horror as can't help being communicated to the audience. 

Dec[embe\r 14th. 

The Glad[iator] has been performed at Boston and with good 
success. I have however been disappointed in not finding any 


very lengthy or judgematical reviews, particularly as the Boston 
critics have a pretty good opinion of their own abilities, and as 
some of my friends chose to expect their decision with some 
anxiety and trepidation. 

Another evidence of the qualifications of a Boston critic is 
shown (I forget the paper) in the manner in which the gentleman 
prints the Mount Haemus speech. I had no idea, that the mere 
destruction of the metre could make the speech so nonsensical. 
He, however, has made it nonsense and yet praises it. The man 
who can relish nonsense, and commend it, is a pretty critic. 

The criticisms by F. in the U. S. Gazette, were, however, written 
by a Boston gentleman, and are evidently done by one who 
knows what he is about. ^^ 

The Galaxy is favourable, but makes such a blunder as must 
needs destroy all the writer's claims to the character of a critic. ^^ 
"In the higher branch of the drama, namely that which is meant for 
the closet, etc., etc." Good God! what an ass! There never yet 
lived a man who could write decent blank verse, that could 
within a word or two, turn you out a respectable closet drama. 
'Tis as easy as lying. And yet of the thousands such — the multi- 
tudes who could, and who have manufactured closet plays, there 
are but two or three who could produce a good stage play. There- 
fore, because any body can write a play for the closet, the closet 
branch of the drama is the higher and nobler! Now could I 
laugh, but that I am too melancholy: and besides, I would as 
soon make a jest as a laugh, when I am alone — I keep such mat- 
ters for company. I do say, and without caring how the assertion 
may be understood as self-gratulation, that there is as much 
difference (considered in relation to the quantity of intellect neces- 
sary to this production) between a first rate stage and a first rate 
closet play, as there is between Niagara and Montmorenci, 
between Lake Superior and Lake George, between the Andes and 
the Alleghanies. I can rant upon this theme. I will grant that 
there is more genius shown in Manjred than in William Tell; in 
Sampson Agonistes than in Virginius; in The Cenci than in Damon; in 
Hadad (which, however, I have not yet read) than in Brutus and 
perhaps The Gladiator. This I grant, because in the aforemen- 
tioned stage plays there is no genius at all. I am not such a bigot 


as to suppose a mere knack at effect gives one any claim to the 
credit of intellect. A man may acquire this knack, as he acquires 
the art of making shoes, and yet acquire nothing else; or he may 
be born with it, and born with nothing else, as some are born 
with a talent for cutting out breeches, and born with nothing else. 
The faculty of poetry is a superior endowment to the faculty of 
effect; but the first in [the] possession of one man, makes him the 
inferior of the man that has both. Otway's poetic faculty was 
inferior to Byron's and Coleridge's; but having — what they had 
not — the dramatic faculty along with his poetic, his Venice 
Preserved must be regarded as a nobler effort of genius than 
Werner^ and his Orphan a far more elevated composition than The 
Remorse. No man in his senses will deny that genius is a concatena- 
tion of separate faculties; that, these being equal, he has the 
greatest genius who has the greatest number of faculties combined 
in his own person; and that he who has written a masterly drama, 
must have had more of these faculties than he who has written 
merely a fine dramatic poem, and therefore must rank in a higher 
scale of intellect. This reservation must be considered: One man 
may have the greater number of faculties, none of them, how- 
ever, separately of any great account; while another man may 
have but one faculty, and yet that one in admirable perfection. It 
is then a question, whether the one may not elevate the possessor 
far above him who has the many. But with this question I have no 
business. I allow and insist, that a good play can't be written 
unless by a poet; and thence it is nothing but common sense and 
common justice to rank a good dramatist over a good poet. Poets 
will hereafter grin at this, and prove that I am no dramatist. 


1. The author wishes to thank Mrs. R. M. Bird and Mrs. Neda West- 
lake for their kindness in permitting him to utilize materials in the 
Bird Collection at the University of Pennsylvania. 

2. Arthur Hornblow, A History of the Theatre in America (Philadelphia, 
1919), II, 49. 

3. American Magazine and Monthly Chronicle, I (1757), 117, in Frank 
Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines 1741-1850 (Cam- 
bridge, 1939), p. 54. 


4. John Neal, Blackwoods Magazine, XVI (1824), 567, in Mott, 
pp. 169f. 

5. Hornblow, II, 58; cf. p. 71 : William Wood's diary "shows no refer- 
ence to payments made to dramatists. . . ." Wood was manager 
of the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia from 1810-1827. 

6. Bird Ms Collection. 

7. "The Diaries of Sydney George Fisher 1837-1838," Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography, LXXVI, 3 (1952), 330-352 
(Second Part). 

8. Joseph Cephas Carroll, Slave Insurrections in the United States 1800- 
7865 (Boston, 1938), p. 133; Herbert Aptheker, Negro Slave Revolts in 
the United States 1526-1860 (New York, 1939), pp. 40-44, 71. 

9. Slavery was a problem upon which Bird evidently brooded. His 
manuscripts contain occasional references to it, and he was to touch 
upon it once more in print in his psychologically tinged novel 
Sheppard Lee, published in 1836. In one part he shows how strongly 
a pamphlet. An Address to the Owners of Slaves, affects the semi- 
literate negroes who manage to read it. By it they are incited to rise 
against a genuinely good master and his family, the consequences 
of which action are catastrophic for both sides. Thus, Bird seems to 
have changed his attitude toward slavery, becoming conservative, 
inasmuch as he dreaded any kind of revolt, any change in the 
status quo. {Sheppard Lee [New York, 1836], vol. II, pp. 181-211). 

10. William Winter, Other Days Being Chronicles and Memories of the Stage 
(New York, 1908), pp. 36fr. 

11. Edward S. Gould, "American Criticism on American Authors," 
Mew York Mirror, XIII (1836), 321, in Mott, p. 40/=. 

12. Arcturus, I (1841), 149, in Mott, idem. 

13. New York Standard, September 9, 1831. 

14. Mercantile Advertiser, October 10, 1831. 

15. New York Evening Post, September 29, 1831. 

16. Boston Evening Transcript, November 11, 1831; New England Galaxy, 
November 19, 1831. 

17. United States Gazette, October 31, 1831. 

18. New York Inquirer, September 29, 1831. 


19. Rene Wellek, A History of Modern Criticism: 1750-1950. The Romantic 
Age (New Haven, 1955), p. 164. 

20. Ibid., p. 20. 

21 . "As quaestor it fell to his lot to serve in Farther Spain. When he was 
there, while making the circuit of the assize-towns, to hold court 
under commission from the praetor, he came to Gades, and noticing 
a statue of Alexander the Great in the temple of Hercules, he 
heaved a sigh, and as if out of patience with his own incapacity in 
having as yet done nothing noteworthy at a time of life when 
Alexander had already brought the world to his feet, he straightway 
asked for his discharge, to grasp the first opportunity for greater 
enterprises at Rome." (Suetonius, "The Deified Julius," J. C. 
Rolfe, tr. [London, 1924], vol. I, pp. 9, 11). 

22. Actually, Congreve's first play was produced when he was 23, and 
he wrote his last play at 30, while Sheridan began at 24, writing 
his School for Scandal at 26. 

23. The muse of tragedy, one of the nine daughters of Zeus and 

24. "Force, and the base love of gain." (Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. I, vs. 
131 [editor's tr.]). 

25. This refers to Nat Turner's rebellion (see Introduction). 

26. In a Ms review (1828?) of Johanna Bailie's The Bride, Bird draws 
an interesting comparison between the two media: "Novel writing 
is to dramatic what painting is to sculpture; the one is a single view 
of an object, with a few lines and shadows; the other requires all 
possible views of that object, where nothing can be left imperfect." 

27. Of these dramatists, no information could be found concerning 
Thiel. James Sheridan Knowles (1784-1862), a cousin of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, wrote plays for William Macready, among 
them, Caius Gracchus (1815) and Virginius (1820). He also wrote 
comedies (e.g. The Beggar^ s Daughter of Bethnal Green) and miscel- 
laneous prose. John Howard Payne (1791-1852), an American who 
wrote many of his plays in England, wrote, among others, Brutus 
(1819), Clari, or the Maid of Milan (1823) — which contains his 
famous song "Home Sweet Home" — and Charles the Second (1824). 
Richard Brinsley Peake (1792-1847) was a writer of musical farces 
and comedies, including Presumption, or the Fate of Frankenstein (1823) 
and The Haunted Inn (1828). He also was treasurer of the Lyceum 


28. Bird may have had in mind Wilham Godwin, who states in The 
Enquirer (London, \191), p. 285, "Poetry itself however affords but 
an uncertain reputation. Is Pope a poet? Is Boileau a poet? These 
are questions still vehemently contested. The French despise the 
tragic poetry of England, and the English repay their scorn with 
scorn. . . . The reputation of Shakespear endures every day a 
new ordeal. ..." 

29. This epilogue has not survived. 

30. This paragraph and the one preceding appear at the end of the Ms, 
apparently as an afterthought. The author has inserted them here 
to maintain the continuity of Bird's particular discussion. 

31. See note 16. 



The Dexter Award in History of Chemistry 

to Eva Armstrong 

Wyndham D. Miles* 

AMONG the medals and prizes awarded in science and arts, 
Lthe Dexter Award in History of Chemistry stands unique in 
its field. The Award, consisting of five hundred dollars and a 
handsome plaque, was established three years ago through the 
generosity of the Dexter Chemical Corporation, and is adminis- 
tered by the Division of History, American Chemical Society. 
The winner in 1956 was Ralph E. Oesper, Professor of Chemistry 
at the University of Cincinnati, author and translator of scores of 
articles on history of chemistry, and a teacher of history of 
chemistry for three decades. In 1957 William Haynes, America's 
foremost authority on the history of industrial chemistry, and 
author of a dozen books including the monumental six-volume 
History of American Chemical Industry, received the prize. This year 
Miss Eva Armstrong, former curator of the Edgar Fahs Smith 
Memorial Collection has been chosen by the judges. 

In electing Miss Armstrong from among a score of nominees, 
the judges followed the criteria set up by the Division of History: 
"The award shall be made on the basis of services which have ad- 
vanced the history of chemistry in any of the following ways: by 
publication of an important book or article; by the furtherance of 
the teaching of the history of chemistry; by significant contribu- 
tions to the bibliography of the history of chemistry; or by meri- 
torious services over a long period of time which have resulted in 
the advancement of the history of chemistry." 

These rules were made purposely broad so that anyone who 
has done significant work in any phase of chemical history would 
be eligible for the Award. Miss Armstrong was chosen not for 
activity in a single field, but rather for the stimulation, inspiration 
and assistance that she contributed to the history of chemistry 
over a long period of years. 

Her greatest contribution lay in building up the Smith Collec- 
tion to a position of international prominence. The nucleus of this 

* Historical Office, United States Army Chemical Corps, Army Chemical 
Center, Maryland. 


collection was assembled by Smith during the many years that he 
was Professor of Chemistry and Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania. After his death in 1927, Mrs. Smith donated the 
library to the University. It was housed in Smith's old office in 
Harrison laboratory for a quarter of a century, and then moved 
a few years ago to its present quarters in the Hare building — an 
appropriate place, as Robert Hare was America's greatest ante 
bellum chemist. Miss Armstrong assumed the post of curator in 
1929 when the Collection was first opened to the public. At that 
time it contained approximately 3,000 volumes, 1,800 prints, and 
600 manuscripts. By 1948, the year Miss Armstrong retired, the 
numbers had jumped to 7,700 volumes, 3,400 prints, and 1,400 
manuscripts. Since 1948 Miss Armstrong has continued to order 
for the Collection. 

There is no need to describe here the holdings of the Smith 
Memorial Collection; Miss Armstrong has done it herself in the 
following articles: "Some Treasures in the E. F. Smith Collec- 
tion," General Magazine and Historical Chronicle 25 (1933), 3-12; 
"Some Incidents in the Collection of the E. F. Smith Memorial 
L.ihra.ry,''^ Journal of Chemical Education 10 (1933), 356-358; "Play- 
ground of a Scientist," Scientific Monthly 42 (1936), 339-348; and 
"Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection in the History of 
Chemistry," 21 pages, privately published, University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1937. 

It is a heavy responsibility to spend thousands of dollars each 
year for books in a specialized field. If the purchaser does not 
know the history of the field thoroughly and does not realize the 
significance of certain books, then she will load the shelves with 
"furniture" or with mediocre, second-rate works while she lets 
important items slip by. Money and space will be wasted, as will 
be the time of people who visit the collection in search of material 
and then have to go elsewhere. The fine, significant holdings of 
the Smith Collection are a tribute to the sound knowledge, thor- 
ough scholarship, and collector's acumen possessed by Miss 

Statistics and holdings alone do not tell the whole story of the 
Collection. Miss Armstrong's skill as a collector was matched by 
her accomplishments as a researcher. She read the books that 


came into her keeping. She knew where to lay her hands on out- 
of-the-way facts, to find the path that led back to the source of 
data, ideas, concepts and quotations, and how to track elusive 
information. European chemists corresponded with her when 
they sought information on the history of American chemistry. 
American chemists wrote or visited her when they needed data 
on American or foreign chemical history. The guest book of the 
Smith Collection carries the names of chemists from every state in 
the Union, from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, 
Egypt, Brazil, India, Colombia, China, Syria, Canada, Cuba, 
Japan, South Africa, Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, and all the 
countries of Europe. The book reads like a Wholes Who in Chemistry. 
On its pages are the signatures of ten presidents of the American 
Chemical Society; three Nobel prize winners (Harold C. Urey, 
Theodor Svedberg of Sweden, and Wendell M. Stanley) ; James 
B. Conant, President of Harvard; Charles H. LaWall, historian 
of pharmacy; George Sarton, historian of science; James Flexner, 
historian of medicine; and every prominent American historian 
of chemistry of the past thirty years. 

A partial record of the writers who were indebted to Miss 
Armstrong may be found in the prefaces of many histories pub- 
lished in the 1930's and '40's. On my shelves are Smallwood's 
Natural History and the American Mind, French's Torch & Crucible^ 
Getman's Life of Ira Remsen, Kendall's Toung Chemists and Great 
Discoveries, Odger's Alexander Dallas Bache, Browne's Source Book 
of Agricultural Chemistry, and several other books that state their 
thanks to Miss Armstrong. On the shelves of the Smith Collection 
are books whose authors were skimpy with their printed acknowl- 
edgments, but who remembered Miss Armstrong with presenta- 
tion copies ("Miss Eva Armstrong, with thanks for your interest 
and help, . . . ." "To Miss Armstrong with many thanks for the 
encouragement and assistance rendered, . . . ." 

Not the least of Miss Armstrong's contributions to chemical 
history were her published writings. From 1933 until 1948, a 
steady stream of articles flowed from her desk to the Journal of 
Chemical Education, Scientific Monthly, General Magazine and Historical 
Chronicle, Library Chronicle, Isis, Pennsylvania Triangle, Dickinson 
Alumnus, and Chymia. Her articles on Thomas Cooper, Jane 


Marcet, Benjamin Rush, and her "History of Chemistry in 
America" (with Charles A. Browne) were httle gems. Her last 
publication was the foreword to volume I of Chymia, written in 
1948 while she was Secretary of the Board of Editors. 

Published articles were only a part of Miss Armstrong's con- 
tribution to history. She spoke on many occasions before groups 
working in her field. These included the Division of History of 
the American Chemical Society, the Special Libraries Council of 
Philadelphia, and student groups. 

Finally, Miss Armstrong assisted the history of chemistry 
movement in this country in an unusual way: by encouraging 
young chemists who had a yen for history. These people did not 
get encouragement from the chemistry departments of their em- 
ployers, but they got it from the Smith Collection. And they 
appreciated it. I still remember my first historical article. It came 
out in a journal with a circulation of some ten thousand, and I 
figured that someone would notice it. But the days passed and no 
one said a word and my spirits sank lower and lower. Then came 
a letter (still in my files) requesting a reprint, and saying of my 
article, "it is an extremely interesting account of a little known 
chemist and author. Yours sincerely, Eva Armstrong." The sun 
came out again, and Miss Armstrong was my friend for life. 

Miss Armstrong received the 1958 Dexter Award at a luncheon 
held in her honor by the Division of History of the American 
Chemical Society and the chemistry alumni of the University of 
Pennsylvania at the Chicago meeting of the American Chemical 
Society in September. 


The Programmschriften Collection 

Albert R. Schmitt* 

EARLY in 1954 the University of Pennsylvania Library ac- 
quired a collection of 16,128 pamphlets. By their German 
name they are called Programmschriften and this particular collec- 
tion, bound in 691 individual volumes, originated in the library 
of the former Koniglich-und Kaiserliches Erstes Staatsgymnasium in 
Graz, Austria, and was purchased from a Swiss dealer. Before 
World War I most Gymnasien in the German speaking countries 
of Europe published statistical reports called Programme at the end 
of each academic year. Usually there was added to these reports 
a scholarly paper written by the school director or by one of the 
teachers on some topic relating to the author's field of specializa- 
tion. Under a written agreement the various schools exchanged 
reports annually in order to aid the members of their teaching 
staffs in research since frequently access to a university library 
was difficult and the number of scientific journals scarce. Often 
the motivation behind these articles was the author's hope of 
obtaining a professorship at a university. Thus, it is not unusual 
for the reader of these Programmschriften today to find interesting 
and highly valuable information in them. Since general biblio- 
graphical reference works often fail to mention these articles it is 
hoped that the catalog which has been prepared for our own 
collection will aid in making them available and usable to inter- 
ested scholars. 

During recent months the Library has undertaken the task of 
evaluating and indexing the more important articles in the 
Programmschriften Collection. Of the total of 16,128 pamphlets 
issued by Gymnasien in Germany and the Austrian Empire in the 
period 1850-1918, slightly more than one third deal with sub- 
jects in the humanities. These are the most valuable and two 
separate catalogs, an author and a subject catalog, are in prepa- 
ration that will reveal the holdings in the field of humanities. Both 
catalogs will be available at the Union Library Catalog and at 
the Reference Desk of the Main Library. A bound index will be 

* Department of Germanic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. 


shelved with the collection in the stacks and will carry as a title 
Index to the Programmschriften Collection of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania Library. This index volume will have the classification 
number 373.43C/M698/gen.lib. under which the whole collec- 
tion has been catalogued. The balance of the collection, slightly 
less than two thirds, deals with the fields of pure and applied 
science. Because most of this material is obsolescent today and of 
limited interest and value, no effort has been made to include 
these articles in either the author or the subject catalog. However, 
articles dealing with the history of science have been included. 
These catalogs will contain volume and article information. The 
number of the article within a volume appears in pencil in the 
upper right hand corner of each title page for ready location 
within the volume. In addition, the Serials Department is in the 
process of preparing cards for the Public Catalog which will indi- 
cate, by issuing Gymnasium and by year, the entire holdings of 
the Programmschriften Collection. Anyone desiring to locate a 
pamphlet not included in the author and subject catalogs should 
find the appropriate volume number by consulting the Public 

A representative selection of some of the pamphlets that will be 
included in the author and subject catalogs follows. It is hoped 
that these few examples will give an indication of the importance, 
nature, and range of the pamphlets in such fields as Classical, 
English, German, and Romance languages and literatures as 
well as in History and Philosophy. 

In the field of Classical languages and literatures some 1,300 
articles have been selected of which approximately 35 to 40 
percent are in Latin. Some are in Greek. Since it would be diffi- 
cult to prepare even a short list of the most valuable papers it 
may suffice to say that on Aeschylus there are 45 articles, on 
Aristophanes 25, on Aristotle 24 (dealing with literary and 
linguistic topics only; another 30 are of a philosophical nature), 
on Julius Caesar 29, on Catullus 21, on Curtius Rufus 10, on 
Cicero 105, etc. These papers are concerned with various prob- 
lems of metrics, versification, style, literary criticism and gram- 
matical and syntactic aspects as well as comparative studies of 
manuscript tradition. 



Among the approximately 250 pamphlets on English language and 
literature the following appear to be of special scholarly value. The 
articles are listed alphabetically by subject and contain author, title, 
and classification information. 


Brandeis, Arthur, Die Alliteration in Aelfrics metrischen Homilien. 



Miinch, Rudolf, Die sprachliche Bedeutung der Gesetzsammlung 
Kdnig Alfreds des Grossen, anj Grund einer Untersuchung der 
Handschrift H ( Textus Roffensis) . 143:23 


Baudisch, Julius, Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der fruher Barbour 
zugeschriebenen Legendensammlung. 598:13 


Drboschal, Gottlieb, Byrons Einfiuss auf das tschechische Schrifttum 
des Vormdrz. 306:16-17 

Kaiser, Byron's und Delavignis "Marino Faliero." 142:2 


Wihlidal, Carl, Chaucer's "Knightes Tale," with an abstract of 
the poet's life. 108:10 


Seifert, Julius, Die "Wit und Science"— M or alitdten des 16. 
Jahrhunderts. 265:14 


Ott, Philipp, Uber das Verhdltnis des Lustspiel-Dichters Dryden zur 
gleichzeitigenfranzosischen Komodie, insbesondere zu Moliere. 327:8 


Wittenbrinck, Gustav, ^Mr Kritik und Rhythmik des altenglischen 
Lais von Havelok dem Ddnen. 112:3 

* The numbers indicate volume number, e.g. 615, and article number within 
each volume, e.g. :17. Article number 17 in volume 615 will therefore be given as 



Horneber, F., Uber ^^King Hart" und " Testament of the Papyngo." 


Langschur, Siegmund, Beitrdge zur La 5 amon-Forschung. 240 : 1 4 


Zelle, Julius, Sur Pimportance du regne de Guillaume III. pour la 
litterature anglaise. 290:4 


Kellner, L., ^ur Sprache Christopher Marlowe'' s. 600:18 


Burhenne, Fritz, Das mittelenglische Gedicht "Stans Puer ad 
Mensam" und sein Verhdltnis zu dhnlichen Erzeugnissen des 15. 
Jahrhunderts. 231:11 

Schmitt, Friedrich, Die mittelenglische Version des Elucidariums 
des Honorius Augustodunensis . 1 1 1 :22 


Zuck, Joseph, Th. Moores "The Love of the Angels" und Lord 
Byrons "Heaven and Earth." 623:1 


Sokoll, Eduard, Z^m angelsdchsischen Physiologus. ?>11:\ 


Soffe, Emil, 1st " Mucedorus" ein Schauspiel Shakspere' s? 99:8 

Boxhorn, Richard, Shakespeares "Die ^dhmung der Wider spen- 
stigen" und Fletchers "Der gezdhmte ^dhmer." 275:29 

Steinschneider, G., Das Pseudo-Shakspere' sche Drama Fair Em. 



Krumpholz, Heinrich, John Skelton und sein Morality Play 
"Magnyfycence." 468:4 

Many more could have been added, but this selective group of titles 
may suffice to indicate the nature of the pieces pertaining to English 
language and literature. 



From the more than 1,000 pamphlets on German language and 
literature we can list at best 1.5 or 2 percent. 


Kugler, Bernhard, Die Deutschen Codices Albert's von Aachen. 



Oettl, Raimund, Der zweite Teil der '^Kronenwdchter.^^ Eine 
A utorschaftsfrage . 53:5-6 


Buchholz, E., Die Lieder des Minnesingers Bernger von Horheim 
nach Sprache, Versbau, Heimat und ^eit. 156:26 


Verosta, Rudolf, Der Phantasiebegriff bei den Schweizern Bodmer 
und Breitinger. 601:19 


Heinrich, Alfred, Quatenus Carminum Buranorum auctores veterum 
Romanorum poetas imitati sint. 119:15 


Diirnwirth, R., Die Fabel von Schillers Ballade ^'Die Biirgscha/t" 
in dem Schachbuche des Jacobus de Cessolis. 275:5 


Holzner, Ferdinand, Die deutschen Schachbiicher in ihrer dich- 
terischen Eigenart gegeniiber ihrer Quelle, dem lateinischen Schach- 
buche des Jacobus de Cessolis. I. Das Schachbuch Kunrats von 
Ammenhausen. 437:23 


Jellinegg, Bruno, David von Augsburg. Dessen deutsche Schriften, 
auf ihre Echtheit untersucht und auf Grund der Handschriften 
verbessert. 508:15-16 


Voigt, E., Untersuchungen Uber den Ursprung der Ecbasis captivi. 




Felix, El I hart von Oberge und Heinrich von Veldeke. 529:7 


Jensch, O., ^ur Spruchdichtung des Erasmus Alberus {Die Praecepta 
morum). 371:13 


Seunig, Vinzenz, Der Gauriel-Dichter als Nachahmer Hartmanns 
von Aue. 550:12 


Dembowski, Johannes, Mitteilungen iiber Goethe und seinen 
Freundeskreis aus bisher unveroffentlichten Aufzeichnungen des 
Graflich Egloff stein'' schen Familien-Archivs zu Arklitten. 363:8 

Schneege, Gerhard, Goethes Verhdltnis zu Spinoza und seine 
philosophische Weltanschauung. 445:6 


Terlitza, Victor, Grillparzers "Ahnfrau'^ und die Schicksalsidee. 


Neunteufel, Franz, ^u Friedrichs von Hansen Metrik, Sprache 
undStil. 122:20 


Goldreich, Richard, Heines liter arische Beziehungen zu Spanien. 



Karlowa, Oskar, Hblderlin und Nietzsche-^arathustra. 445:21 


Hirsch, Viktor, Beitrdge zu Heinrich von Kleists Novellentechnik. 


Burghauser, G., Die germanischen endsilbenvokale und ihre 
vertretung im gotischen, altwestnordischen, angelsdchsischen und 
althochdeutschen . 265:12 


Jacob, Johannes, Uber das Verhdltniss der Hamburgischen 
Dramaturgie zur Poetik des Aristo teles. 291 :1 



Rathay, J., Ueber den Unterschied zwischen Lied und Spruch bei den 
Lyrikern des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts. 591:3 


Bayer, Joseph, Justus Moseis staatsrechtliche und volkswirt- 
schaftliche Ansichten. 671:21 


Christoph, Friedrich, Ueber den Einfluss Jean Paul Friedrich 
Richters auf Thomas de Quincey. 235:11 


Krichenbauer, Benno, Ueber die Beziehungen ztuischen Ethik und 
Aesthetik in Schillers philosophischen Schriften. 98:9 


Strauch, Ernst, Vergleichung von Sibotes '^'Vrouwenzuhf^ mit den 
anderen mhd. Darstellungen derselben Geschichte, sowie dem Fabliau 
''de la male dame" und dem Mdrchen des Italieners Straparola. 84 :4 


Ammann, J. J., Das Verhaltnis von Strickers "Karl" zum Rolands- 
lied des PJafen Konrad mit Beriicksichtigung der "Chanson de 
Roland." 315:8-12, 14-16, 18, 21-22 


Holfeld, Die Merkmale des Uebergangs vom Althochdeutschen zum 
Mittelhochdeutschen in der Deklination Willirams. 209 : 1 2 


Mielke, Wilhelm, Die Charakterentwicklung Parzivals. 187:5 



Turning to Romance languages and literatures the following articles 
of some 400 should be worth particular attention. 


Schneider, Karl, Die Charakteristik der Personen im Aliscans. 


Mayer, A., Li Miserere. Pikardisches Gedicht aus dem XII. 
Jahrhundert von Reclus de Mollens. Bearbeitet und zum ersten Male 
verqffentlicht. 327:3 


Steinmiiller, Georg, Tempora und Modi bei dem Troubadour 
Bertran de Born. 649:7 


Darpe, Franz, Boileau et la satire romaine. 484:1 


Abert, Johann, Gedanken liber Gott, Welt und Menschenleben in den 
''^ Autos sacramentales''' des Don Pedro Calderon de la Barca. Mit 
erlduternden Vorbemerkungen. 7. Abt. Einleitung. Das religiose 
Drama und die ''''Autos'''' von Calderon. 433:3 


Osterhage, Georg, Ueber einige chansons de geste des Lohengrin- 
kreises. 40:8 


Ellinger, Johann, Syntax der Pronomina bei Chrestien de Troies. 




Skola, Joh., Corneille's he menteur und Goldonis II bugiardo in 
ihrem Verhdltnisse zu Alarcon's La verdad sospechosa. 439:7 


Galzigna, G. A., Fino a che punto i commediografi del Rinascimento 
abbiano imitato Plauto e Terenzio. 113:9-10 


Bauer, Andreas, Die Sprache des Fuerre de Gadres im Alexander- 
roman des Eustache von Kent. 178:13 



ZettI, Josef, Auslaiitverkennung in der franzosischen Wortbildung. 



Trommlitz, Paul, Die franzosischen ui-Perfecta ausser poi (potui) 
bis zum 73. Jahrhundert einschliesslich. 535:11 


Lusner, Ludwig, La Somme des Vices et des Vertus. 623:18 

Mettlich, J., Die Abhandlung iiber "Rymes et mettres^' in der 
Prosabearbeitung der Echecs amoureux. 404:39 


Krause, Arnold, ^um Barlaam und Josaphat des Gui von Cambrai. 
I. Teil: ^um Text. II. Teil: ^ur Mundart der Dichtung. 36:22, 24 


Erling, Ludwig, "Lj Lais de Lanval," altjranzosisches Gedicht der 
Marie de France nebst Th. Chestre^s ^''LaunJaV neu herausgegeben. 



Beck, Friedrich, Les Epistres sur le Roman de la Rose von Christine 
de Pizan, Mach 3 Pariser Hss. bearbeitet und zum ersten Male 
verqffentlicht. 409:10 


Janicki, Julian, Les comedies de Paul Scarron. Contribution a 
rhistoire des relations litter aires franco-espagnoles an XVII siecle. 


Gugel, Emil, Participium des Praesens und Gerundium im Roman 
de Rou des Wace. 598:1 


In the field of history the Programmschriften deal only with ancient 
history and the modern European period. There is a total of approxi- 
mately 1200 articles of which only the following few can be listed. 


Rose, Gustav Adolf, Die byzantinische Kirchenpolitik unter Kaiser 
Anastasius I. 647:25 



Marcks, Friedrich, ^ur Chronologic von Busbeeks "Legationis 
Turcicae Epistolae IV." 469:28 


Fischer, William, Studien zur hyzantinischen Geschichte des 17. 
Jahrhunderts. I. loannes Xiphilinus, Patriarch von Konstantinopel. 
11. Die Patriarchenwahlen im 77. Jhdt. III. Die Entstehungszeit des 
"Tradatus peculiis,'^ des "Tractatus de privilegiis creditorum" der 
''^Synopsis legum'' des Michael Psellus und der ^''Peira'^ und deren 
Verjasser. 444:3 


Platz, F., Gesetzgehung und Verwaltung unter den karolingischen 
Konigen, nach den Capitularien. 436:3 


Zorn, Josef, Umfang und Organisation des pdpstlichen Eingreijens 
in Deutschland von 1238 bis zum Tode Friedrichs II. 24:7-9 


Ostermann, Alfred, Karl der Grosse und das byzantinische Reich. 


Kende, Oskar, Ueber Vorstiifen der stdndigen Gesandtschaften in 
einigen deutschen Stddten am Ausgange des Mittelalters. 462:20 


Dentzer, Bernhard, Quellenstellen zur deutschen Verfassungs- 
geschichte der Neuzeit. 517:21 


Winkler, Arnold, "Kaiser und Reich'''' und das Reichskammer- 
gericht um 1767, zu Beginn der letzten Visitation des hbchsten 
deutschen Reichsgerichtes. 625:25 


Koller, Johann, Worin dusserte sich am deutlichsten das Wesen des 
Husitismus, und wie verhielten sich die Deutschstddte Mdhrens zu 
demselben {bis 1438)? 426:9-10 


Leist, Die literarische Bewegung des Bilderstr cites im Abcndlande, 
besonders in der Jrdnkischen Kirche. 370:1 



Klee, Rudolf, "Z)i> Regula Monachorum''' Isidors von Sevilla und 
ihr Verhdltnis zu den ilbrigen abendldndischen Monchsregeln jener 
Zeit. 378:21 


Mathis, Johann, Kaiser Maximilians I. bstliche Politik, haupt- 
sdchlich in den Jahren 1511-1515 (Der deutsche Ritterorden, Polen, 
Russland, Ungarn). 344:9 


Barta, Erwin, Die Entstehung des Fiirstentums Neisse und seine 
Geschichte bis in die ^eiten Karls IV. 240:8 


Hagen, Theodor, Die Papstwahlen von 1484 und 1492. 89:9 


Herrmann, August, Darstellung der politischen Beziehungen des 
romischen Kaiserreiches zu den Parthern und Germanen wdhrend der 
Regierung Marc AureVs. 509:14 


Contzen, Leopold, Die Historiographie der Conquista, vornehmlich 
im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. I. Cieza de Leon und Inca Garcilaso de 
la Vega. 161:6 


Stemplinger, Eduard, Studien zu den Ethnika des Stephanos von 
Byzanz. 398:10 


Spiegel, Nic., Gelehrtenproletariat und Gaunertum vom Beginn des 
XIV. bis zur Mitte des XVI. Jahrhunderts. Mit 2 Beilagen: 1. Das 
Alter des Basler Ratsmandates gegen die Gilen and Lamen, sowie des 
liber vagatorum. 2. Der Text des ''Bedeler or dens' von Gengenbach. 


Grandi, Luigi, Relazioni di Trieste con la Repubblica di Venezia, 
la casa d'Absburgo ed il Patriarcato d'Aquileia 1368-1382. 553:3 


Renner, Victor von, Tiirkische Urkunden, den Krieg des Jahres 
1683 betrejfend, nach den Aufzeichungen des Marc"" Antonio Mamucha 
della Torre. 591:15 



As a subdivision of history let us now consider some of the pieces 
pertaining to Humanism and Reformation. 


Matz, Martin, Konrad Celtis und die rheinische Gelehrtengesell- 
schaft, Beitrag zur Geschichte des Humanismus in Deutschland. 359 :4 


Wrampelmeyer, H., Ungedruckte Schriften Philipp Melanchthons. 
^um ersten Male herausgegeben aus der Berliner Handschrijt des 
Sebastian Redlich aus Bernau (Codex Manusc. Theol.Lat. Berolinensis 
Nr. 97), I. und II. Teil. 121 :50, 52 


Hermes, Johann Joseph, Ueber das Leben und die Schriften des 
Johannes von Trittenheim, genannt Trithemius. 469:4 


Approximately 400 items of the collection deal with various philo- 
sophical subjects. Most of these are in the ancient period but some deal 
with European philosophy in the period 1600-1850. 


Moriggl, Simon, Monologium des Heil. Anselm von Kanterbury. 
Eine philosophische Abhandlung. 249:5 


Gans, M. E., Psychologische Untersuchung zu der von Aristoteles als 
platonisch ilberlieferten Lehre von den Idealzahlen aus dem Gesichts- 
punkte der platonischen Dialektik und Asthetik. 630 :4 

Wetzel, Martin, Die Lehre des Aristoteles von der distributiven 
Gerechtigkeit und die Scholastik. 571:3 


Kauff, H., Die Erkenntnislehre des hi. Augustinus und ihr Ver- 
hdltnis zu der platonischen Philosophie. 402:16 



Henrici, J., Einfiihrung in die induklive Logik an Bacons Beispiel 
nach Stuart Mills Regeln. 226:19 


Behncke, Gustav, De Cicerone Epicureorum philosophiae existima- 
tore etjudice. ?nA 


Seibt, Anton, Urteilstheorie und Irrthumsproblem bei Descartes. 



Steiner, Johann, Die wahre und falsche Gnosis mit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des Valentinianischen Systems. 265:21 


Stuhrmann, Johannes, Die Wurzeln der Hegelschen Logik bei 
Kant. 415:32 


Scharnagl, P. Theobald, Der physico-teleologische Gottesbeweis 
in D. Humes '^Dialogues concerning natural religion.'^ 438:6-7 


SelHer, Waher, Die Kantische Ethik in ihren Beziehungen zum 
Utilitarismus und zur theologischen Utilitdtsmoral. 110:43 

Stieglitz, Theodor, ^ur Lehre vom transzendentalen Idealismus 
I. Kants und A. Schopenhauer s. 13:7 


Winkler, Karl, Lockes Erkenntnistheorie verglichen mit der des 
Aristoteles. 563:20 


Paul, Der Ontologismus des Malebranche. 413:23 


Griining, G., Wesen und Aufgabe des Erkennens nach Nicolaus 
Cusanus. 471:12 



Stieglitz, Theodor, Platons Ideen in der Metaphysik A. Schopen- 
hauer s. 451:6 


Zimmermann, Josef, Ueber die Schrift des hi. Thomas von Aquino 
"Z)^ substantiis separatis" mit Riicksicht auf seine Auffassung der 
Geschichte der Philosophie. 665:4 

Aside from these major groups there are some 600 pieces of diverse 
topics on Bible studies, Art and Music, Indo-European languages, 
Slavic languages, and other miscellaneous items. 

My most heartfelt appreciation goes to Rudolf Hirsch for his untiring 
help and invaluable advice. Without his aid the difficult task of indexing 
could not have been finished. Mr. Charles Hutchings, now of Rutgers 
University, deserves recognition for the work he did on the collection 
after it was acquired by the University Library. 



Matthew Arnold at the University 

Neda Westlake 

"What a good fellow — frank and easy in manner — strong fine figure, 
strong face." In his hurried diary notes for June 12, 1886, Dr. William 
Pepper, Provost of the University, thus described the honored guest who 
four days before had delivered an address, "Common Schools Abroad," 
in the College Chapel. 

From Dr. Pepper's notes^ and letters of Arnold, a vivid picture of that 
occasion emerges. It was a hot June day, and with some 600 people 
crowded into the chapel (now the Geology Department in College 
Hall), Dr. Pepper was indignant at the physical discomfort of the badly 
ventilated room, but continued with a description of the occasion. 
"Arnold held his manuscript in his left hand and read from it. . . . 
I sat just behind him on the little platform and called 'louder' at short 
intervals. . . . What he said about the more humanizing effect of 
foreign [continental as opposed to English or American] education on 
children especially interesting. He said he often found this note in his 
report of visits to schools in Europe: 'the children human.' Thus able 
to appreciate the spirit, the quality, the humanities of poetry and of 
literary work. Bad enunciation. Terrible pronunciation of some words — 
'girls, geeerls' ! Talked of primary schools on the continent and con- 
trasted them favorably with those in England. 'Education is that in 
which all human beings are taught all things human' — something more 
than mere useful knowledge. Closed by saying that no University could 
more fittingly do this than the University of Franklin." 

The difficulty that many English men of letters encountered in mak- 
ing themselves understood in American lecture halls is the subject of a 
note^ from Arnold to his sister from Boston on his first visit to America 
in 1883. "It is unnatural for me to speak so slowly and elaborately as in 
these great buildings; and to people unfamiliar with the English intona- 
tion, I am obliged to do so in order to be heard; but I can do it, and 
am now doing it quite easily. . . ." 

Matthew Arnold had had a successful lecture tour in America in 
1883, and in 1886 had returned to visit his eldest daughter, Mrs. 
Frederick W. Whitridge, in New York. Some of Arnold's most devoted 

1 This and following notes from Dr. Pepper's diary are quoted from the William 
Pepper Papers, University of Pennsylvania Library. 

2 Letters of Matthew Arnold, collected by George W. E. Russell, New York, 1896. 
The following extracts from Arnold's correspondence are from the same source. 


friends in America were Philadelphians, and this invitation to speak at 
the University afforded an opportunity to renew those acquaintances. 

Whatever the difficulty of communication in pubhc lectures, it is 
evident that Arnold and his hosts had a thoroughly enjoyable time. 
Dr. Pepper reports a dinner and a breakfast, with S. Weir Mitchell, 
E. H. Coates, General S. Wylie Crawford, and two of Arnold's close 
friends, Ellis Yarnall and Attorney General Wayne MacVeagh, among 
the guests. They were pleased with Arnold's reaction to Philadelphia; 
Dr. Pepper quoted him as saying that he liked Boston and Philadelphia 
so much better than New York, and that Chestnut Street was the most 
attractive street in America. In a letter to his sister, from Germantown 
on June 9, 1886, Arnold wrote that "... A group of men I met yester- 
day were the first men I have seen in this country who were serious and 
cultivated enough to understand the Irish question [the bill for Home 
Rule for Ireland, defeated on the 7th of June]. The President of the 
Pennsylvania University [Dr. Pepper] had got up at some unheard-of 
hour in the morning to get the newspaper as soon as it was published, 
so anxious was he (on the right side) about the division. . . . On 
Friday I breakfast at the University and we go on to Washington in the 
afternoon. . . . We drove out to M'Veagh's to dinner after my lecture 
at the University (quite a success) yesterday; it might have been 
England, the country was so green, so fenced and so cultivated. . . ." 

From other accounts as well as the speaker's, the lecture had indeed 
been "quite a success." It was fully reported in The Pennsylvanian, and 
published in the Century Magazine the following October. 

The 33-page manuscript, in Arnold's close, clear script, given to the 
University in 1907 by Mr. J. G. Rosengarten, was the focal point of an 
exhibition in November for the Friends of the Library. Mr. Seymour 
Adelman generously contributed the major part of the exhibit — first 
editions, inscription copies, and letters of Arnold and his friends. The 
honored guest and speaker for the opening of the exhibition was Dr. 
Arnold Whitridge, the grandson of the poet. Dr. Whitridge, who has 
held professorships at Yale, the Universities of Athens and Bordeaux, 
and is the author of books on literary criticism and several biographies, 
particularly Dr. Arnold of Rugby, delighted his audience with his remarks 
on his grandfather. Dr. Whitridge's manuscript, to be treasured in the 
Rare Book Collection along with Matthew Arnold's "Common Schools 
Abroad," is printed on the following pages. 


The Gaiety of Matthew Arnold 

Arnold Whitridge 

THIS is such a pleasant occasion and such an interesting one 
to me personally, as I am sure it is to you also, that I am not 
going to spoil it by delivering a formal lecture. What I really 
want to do is to congratulate your Librarian, Dr. Setton, Mr. 
Mills and the Friends of the Library on this exhibition, and at the 
same time to supplement the exhibition by calling your attention 
to an aspect of Matthew Arnold which scholars and posterity in 
general have been inclined to overlook. I want to talk to you for 
a few minutes about the gaiety of Matthew Arnold the man, as 
opposed to the sombre austerity of Matthew Arnold the poet. 
Not that his poetry is always austere by any means, but that is 
certainly the prevailing impression. 

Ask any graduate student of English literature what are the 
distinguishing characteristics of Matthew Arnold, and he will 
probably hold forth about Arnold's dissatisfaction with his own 
age, his regret for the past, for the days 

. . . when wits were fresh and clear, 
And life ran gaily as the sparkling Thames; 
Before this strange disease of modern life, 
With its sick hurry, its divided aims. 
Its heads o'ertaxed, its palsied hearts, was rife — 

If he is articulate, as I am sure the graduate students of this uni- 
versity are, he will go on to talk of the poet's nostalgic intimations 
of some state of spiritual well-being which, because he was a child 
of the nineteenth century, still floated just beyond his reach. 
Arnold's constant emphasis on conduct — you remember the 
phrase, "conduct is three fourths of life" — his insistence on "high 
seriousness" in poetry, has blinded us to certain less lofty, but 
perhaps more humane, aspects of his character. 

The fact is that he was always at war with himself — the artist 
with the moralist, the Greek poet with the Hebrew prophet, the 
lover of Byron and passion and the beauty of the South with the 
disciple of Wordsworth and the stern austerity of the North. 


This conflict can be seen too in his theory and practice of poetry. 
It has always seemed to me one of the paradoxes of Enghsh 
literature that while Arnold insisted that all art should be dedi- 
cated to joy his own poetry is anything but joyful. He himself was 
so aware of this defect in his poetry, as it seemed to him, that he 
suppressed one of his greatest poems, "Empedocles on Etna," and 
only restored it to publication on the insistence of Robert Brown- 
ing. Browning did not quarrel with Arnold's theory of poetry ex- 
cept in so far as it affected "Empedocles on Etna." Critical 
theories were all very well, but they must not be allowed to get in 
the way of good poetry. 

There is no question that the classroom estimate of Arnold is 
true. He admits it himself over and over again, among other 
places in the "Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse" where he 
tells us 

. . . rigorous teachers seized my youth, 
And purged its faith, and trimm'd its fire, 
Show'd me the high white star of Truth, 
There bade me gaze, and there aspire. 

My point is that though this is the truth it is not the whole truth. 
Side-by-side with the austere poet, the stern critic of society, and 
the harassed school inspector, there was another very different 
Matthew Arnold, a "wordling" as one of his contemporaries 
called him, who loved good talk and good wine, an evening with 
Sainte-Beuve at a good Paris restaurant, a game of racquets at 
the club, or a day's fishing with his son. Strange as it may seem 
to us as we read his poetry, the trouble with Matthew Arnold 
from his friends' point of view was that he was not serious enough. 
At Oxford he was everything of which his father would have dis- 
approved — jaunty, indolent, and debonair. His banter — the 
twentieth century would have called it "kidding" — was notorious. 
Listen to what his friend Hawker has to say about him. "We ar- 
rived here on Friday evening," wrote Hawker during a trip with 
young Matthew in 1843, "after sundry displays of the most con- 
summate coolness on the part of our friend Matt, who pleasantly 
induced a belief into the passengers of the coach that I was a poor 
mad gentleman, and that he was my keeper." 


That was very characteristic of Matthew Arnold as an under- 
graduate. His friend Clough worried about his unwilHngness to 
devote himself to his studies. "Matthew has gone out fishing 
when he ought properly to be working," wrote Clough in the 
summer of 1844 when they were both on a reading party which 
Arnold was doing his best to ignore or disrupt. A trip to Paris in 
1 846, to follow the actress Rachel through her Paris season, only 
exaggerated his gaiety and his flamboyance. He came back 
spouting Beranger's poetry, but that was not what the University 
authorities wanted. "Matt has returned full of Paris," complains 
Clough again — "theatres in general, and Rachel in special. He 
breakfasts at 12, and never dines in Hall, and in the last week or 
8 days rather (for two Sundays must be included) he has been to 
chapel only once." 

Now all this, you may say, is nothing but a reaction against the 
stern training of his father, and that as he grew older the exuber- 
ance of youth disappeared and he lost the capacity to surrender 
himself to the gayer side of life. Certainly he changed, as all of us 
do, but though the gaiety assumed a different form it was still 

Is it so small a thing 

To have enjoyed the sun, 

To have lived light in the spring, 

To have loved, to have thought, to have done; 

To have advanced true friends, and beat down baffling foes . . . 

You can not call that the poetry of a pessimist, or of a man who 
shut the door on life. I would say that during the thirty years that 
elapsed between the writing of those lines and the delivery of his 
lecture here in Philadelphia Arnold lost something of his zest for 
poetry. Possibly the business of earning his living and providing 
for a large family — unlike Browning he was not a rich man — and 
the very prosaic life of a school inspector, crowded out, or at least 
stunted, the more artistic side of his nature. But fortunately there 
were compensations. I can think of no poet of his generation to 
whom children and home meant as much as they did to Matthew 
Arnold. The expeditions, the games, the jokes, the love of animals 


— all the small coin of intimate family life — played a great part 
in the happy serenity of his nature. 

If I may be personal for a moment, it might interest you to 
know that my mother, Matthew Arnold's older daughter, never 
talked to me much about his poetry. She read me "The Forsaken 
Merman," and when I went to school she gave me the "Essays in 
Criticism," but she never talked about him as a literary man. She 
left me to discover him for myself. Perhaps that was wise. She 
could never think of him except as a most loving, affectionate, 
and understanding father. 

The other aspect I remember hearing a great deal about as a 
child was his intense love of the outdoors and particularly of 
flowers. This is of course immediately apparent in "Thyrsis," 
"The Scholar Gipsy" and in the Switzerland poems. You will see 
it also if you read the Letters, especially those written from 
America at the end of his life. At that time his health was already 
bothering him — he died shortly after his return to England — and 
that meant he could not walk about as much as he would have 
liked, but he got the greatest pleasure out of the wild flowers and 
the trees, the view from his window, and the look of the country- 
side, which reminded him of England and yet was so different. 

Here in Philadelphia, for instance, he was carried away by the 
beauties of the park, "one of the finest in the world, 3000 acres of 
beautiful undulating country with a fine river. ... It is worth 
crossing the Atlantic to see the 'kalmia' and magnolia growing 
wild everywhere in the woods." He notes also the lady slippers, 
Indian pipe, milkweed, and thalictrum. "But," he says, in writing 
to his sister, "I must not go on about flowers or my letter will 
contain nothing else." There is a nice touch in another letter 
where he persuades Andrew Carnegie, much against his will, to 
stop the carriage so that he can get out and examine the rhodo- 

In all these comments I am reminded of what he says about 
Wordsworth's poetry. "It is great because of the extraordinary 
power with which Wordsworth feels the joy offered us in nature, 
the joy offered us in the simple primary affections and duties." 

I can't possibly improve on Matthew Arnold's language so I 
will leave it at that. When you re-read him, as I hope you do 


occasionally, I should like you to think of him not only as an 
elegiac poet 

Wandering between two worlds, one dead, 
The other powerless to be born . , . 

not only as the critic of the British Philistine, and of the dangerous 
tendency in America to confuse mediocrity with excellence, but 
as one who impressed everyone who came in contact with him 
with the gay serenity of his spirit. "I don't care what you think 
of his poetry," my mother once said to me. "Papa was never 
gloomy. He made life fun for everybody." That seems to me a 
very enviable memory, and I am grateful to the Friends of the 
Library for giving me this opportunity to pass it on to you. 


Library Notes 

A Note from the editor 

For the past several years Rudolf Hirsch has served as editor of the 
Library Chronicle. The pressure of other duties has forced him to withdraw 
from this capacity. The issues of the Chronicle under his guidance demon- 
strate a consistent excellence— a record that will be exceedingly difficult 
to maintain. Mr. Hirsch has graciously offered to help me in any prob- 
lems relating to the Chronicle and Miss Elizabeth Borden and Miss M. 
Elizabeth Shinn have kindly consented to continue in their capacities 
as editorial assistants. In essence, then, the team remains the same for 
with Rudolf Hirsch hovering in the background we hope that the 
Chronicle will continue to inform, instruct, and entertain as it has so 
notably done in the past. 

Merrill G. Berthrong 

Various Gifts 

Adelman, Seymour-Two colored engravings, \ly2 x 12", "A view of 
the stock market," and "A view of the fountain in the Temple," by 
Fletcher, London, 1753, to be added to the Teerink collection of 
Jonathan Swift. 

Bally, Raymond E. -Miscellaneous collection; 25 vols. 

Benoliel, Mrs. D. jACQyES-(Dickens, Charles) Great International 
Walking Match of February 29, 1868. One large broadside in leather 
case. Contains signatures of George Dolby, James R. Osgood, James T. 
Fields, and Charles Dickens. 

BuTTERWORTH, Charles C, Estate of-Material on the history of the 
English Bible, 16th Century English history and printing; editions of 
classics and rare editions of the Bible. 368 vols. 

CoMEGYS, Amy, Estate of-Miss Comegys has been a generous donor 
over a period of years. Her death this spring resulted in the final dis- 
position of 20 books. 

Favs^cett, Dr. Charles D.-22 bound volumes of various titles. 

Henley, James-38 sheets of unpublished material from Farrell's 
Judgment Day. 

Hyde, Dr. Walter W.-Ormerod, George. History of the County 
Palatine and City of Chester, compiled from original evidence in public 
offices, the Harleian and Cottonian MSS, parochial registers . . . 2nd. 
ed. rev. by T. Helsby. Routledge, 1882. 3 vols. 


LiNEBARGER, Prof. Paul M. A.-39 volumcs of Brazilian diplomatic 
archives, being a series of reports by the Brazilian Foreign Minister to 
the Brazilian legislature. 

Meyer, Mrs. Fred H. -Miscellaneous material in German; literature 
and American authors in German translation. 104 vols. 

Murphy, Mrs. Miles- Volumes on psychology from Dr. Murphy's 
office, containing presentation copies of two works by the psychologist, 
Alexander Bain. 25 vols. 

Paschkis, MARGARET-Miscellaneous German literature. 22 vols. 

Pennsylvania University, Veterinary School, Class of 1955- 
Titles selected by Veterinary Library and purchased for the Library. 

Rowley, George, Prof.-Newbold, W. R., Dr. "Literary remains." 
Class of 1887. Ph.D. 1891. Material on spiritualism and various slides 
and material on Bacon. Heinrici, Georg. Die Valentiniansch Gnosis 
und die Heilige Schrift. Voynich mss. photostats and slides taken by 
RBC. Autograph letters of Conan Doyle, William James and spiritualist 
material given to Archives. 

ScHOELKOPF, Robert J., JR.-History of Pope Alexander III and 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. 

Vare, Edw^in H., JR.-Volumes III and IV of original elephant folio- 
size aquatints of Audubon's "Birds of America." These will join Vol- 
umes V and VI which Mr. Vare gave to the Library in 1957. 

Ward, Philip H., Jr. -Collection of U. S. coins in denominations 
from y^ cent to 20 cents. 

We gratefully acknowledge gifts from W. B. Saunders & Company, 
Illman-Carter Library, University Museum and the Wistar Institute 
Library. The following individuals were donors: Chester E. Tucker, 
Henry M. Pemberton and from the faculty the Drs. Bodde, BoUes, 
Briner, Eiseley, Klarmann, Laurie, Martin, Matthews, Miller, Moenke- 
meyer, Odlozilik, Smith, Wells, and Whitaker. 



Important Purchases 1957-1958 

Library of Dr. Joseph E. Gillet, late professor of Romance languages, 
Spanish literature, and Philology — approximately 2500 volumes. 

American bureau of industrial research. A documentary of American in- 
dustrial society. Russell & Russell, 1958. 

Ancient history of China (in Japanese) . 

Barbosa Machado, Diogo. Biblioteca Lusitana, 2nd. ed. 4 vols. 

The Beaver, magazine of the North. (Out of print issues added to the 
Museum's holdings.) 

Bianchi, Paolo Federico. Raccolta (Tornati (Tarchitettura . . . Paris, 
ca. 1760. 

Blondel, Jacques Francois. Architecture francaise. Paris, Jambert, 1752— 
1756. 4 vols. 

Boyle, Robert. Curiosities of chymistry. London, 1691. 

Burton, Robert. Anatomy of melancholy. Oxford, 1 624. 

Chambers, William. Designs of Chinese buildings, furniture, dresses. 
London, 1757. 

Czechoslovakia, laws, statutes, etc. Skirba zakonu a narizeni statu 
ceskoslovensko, 1918-1952. 38 vols. 

Finnisch — Ugrische forschungen. 32 vols. 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, Sdmtliche werke (Propylaen ausgabe). 

Harada, Ritamura et al. Color atlas of skin disease. 2 vols. 1956. 

Hoefer, Jean Chretien Ferdinand. Nouvelle biographic generate. Paris, 
1857-1866. 46 vols. 

Holstenius, Lucas. Codex regularum monasticarum et canonicarum. 2nd. ed, 
Graz, 1956. 6 vols, in 3. 

Homerus. Odissea . . . per Raphaelum Volaterrum in Latinum conversa. 
Rome, 1510. 

Intermediare des chercheurs et curieux. 1864-1940. Complete collection, 

KrafTt, Johann Carl. Plans des plus beaux jardins pittoresques de France. 
Paris, 1810. 2 vols. 


Milton, John. Paradise lost. 1st. ed. London, S. Simmons, 1668. 

Offner, Richard. A critical and historical corpus of Florentine painting. 
8 vols, rec'd. 

Pozzo, Andrea. Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum. Rome, 1693-1700. 
2 vols. 

Prussia. Archivverwalthung. Mitteilungen . . . Publikationen . . . 

Revue de Medecine veterinaire. Vols. 79-88, 93-97. 

Revue Hispanique. (Certain vols, missing in our set.) 

Royal Asiatic Society. Malayan branch. Journal. 18 scattered vols. 

Sanuto, Marino. I diari. Venice, Visentini, 1879-1903. 59 vols. 

Sebastian. Het eerste-vijjde, boeck van de architecturen . . . Amsterdam, 

Stimmen aus Maria-Laach. 1871-1940. Vols. 1-137. 

Times (London). Palmer's index. Scattered issues of 18th, 19th and 
20th centuries. 

Vecellio, Cesare. Habiti antichi et moderni di tutto it mondo. Venice, 
Sessa, 1598. 

Vitruvius, Pollio Marcus. Les dix livres d* architecture. 2nd. ed. Paris, 
Coignard, 1684. 

J. M. G. 

Continental European Books 

The following is a representative list of purchases made during recent 

Spanish versions of Seneca (Antwerp, 1551) and Josephus (Madrid, 
1629); a French translation of Thucydides, Geneva, 1600; Italian 
translations of Caesar (Venice, 1517 and 1558) and Seneca (Venice, 

A Panegyricus for Emperor Charles V by Giovanni Crisostomo Zanchi, 
published at Rome in 1536. A blank leaf at the end contains a manu- 
script Latin poem of eight lines by Basilio Zanchi addressed to the 
author, his brother. Basilio has also made manuscript corrections 
throughout the text. 


The first printed edition of the poem Henrici Quarti Ro. Imperatoris 
bellum contra Saxones heroico carmine descriptum, pubhshed at Strassburg in 
1508. The authorship has never been established; it has been attributed 
both to the eleventh and the sixteenth centuries. This edition also con- 
tains verses by Baptista Mantuanus and a letter of Beatus Rhenanus. 

Historische Beschreibung, dated 1568, a German translation of Hubert 
Languet's eyewitness account of the siege of Gotha in 1567, which 
marked the downfall of Duke Johann Friedrich II of Saxony and 
Wilhelm von Grumbach. 

Three works on the art of letter- writing: Francesco Sansovino, 
Del Secretario, overi formulario di lettere missivi et responsivi, Venice, 1573; 
the first edition of Torquato Tasso's // Secretario, Ferrara, G. Cesare, 
1587; the Ars Tulliano more epistolandi of Jacobus Publicius, Paris, A. 
Caillaut, ca. 1493. A treatise on writing poetry is M. A. Sabellico's De 
rerum et artium inventoribus poema, Paris, about 1510. 

Among other incunabula, Johannes Trithemius, De operatione divini 
amoris, Mainz, 1497(?), and an edition of Albius Tibullus' works, con- 
taining also the works of Propertius, with commentaries on both, Venice, 
1500. The Tibullus has many manuscript variant readings and, also in 
manuscript, much of Antonio Volsco's commentary on Propertius. 

Germaniae exegeseos volumina duodecim, Haguenau, 1518, a history of 
Germany by Franciscus Irenicus, including a description of Nuremberg 
by Conrad Celtis. 

A form for marriage dispensations (for consanguinity), issued at 
Rome about 1510 to raise money for the building of St. Peter's at Rome. 
The entire text is engraved on a vellum sheet. 

Two Ramon Lull items: a Lyons, 1517, edition of his Ars magna 
generalis et ultima and a rare anonymous pamphlet of eight leaves 
printed in Germany early in the sixteenth century, called Speculum et 
alphabeticum sacerdotum. It contains a section called "Raimundi Lulli . . . 
contemplationes," actually selections from his De Amico et Amato. 

An edition of the Career damore by Diego de San Pedro, translated into 
Italian by Lelio de Manfredi, printed on vellum at Venice about 1514. 

Three small author collections: A group of four pamphlet editions of 
poems by Hans Sachs published at Nuremberg, one in 1 524, the others 
about 1553. Also, a bulky quarto volume bound in pigskin in 1613 for 
Martinus Brenner, bishop of Seckau, containing five anti-Lutheran 
works by Johann Nas dated from 1581 to 1588; one of the items is a 
broadside with a large woodcut satirizing the Reformers and beneath it 


a long poem in German based on the cut. Finally, five exegetical and 
doctrinal works by Rupertus, abbot of Deutz (d. 1135), four published 
at Cologne in 1526 and edited by Johannes Cochlaeus, the other pub- 
lished at Augsburg in 1487. 

Epistola Luciferi ad spirituales, Magdeburg, 1549, a pamphlet some- 
times attributed to the fourteenth-century bishop, Nicolas Oresme, 
which severely attacks the corruption of the church. 

A volume published at Konigsberg in 1584 containing short biog- 
raphies of all the grand masters of the Teutonic Knights. The coat of 
arms of each master is reproduced and, in this copy, colored by hand. 

A debate on marriage between Ercole and Torquato Tasso, entitled 
Deir ammogliarsi piacevole contesa jra i due moderni Tassi, Bergamo, 1593. 

For the Krumbhaar Collection of Elzevier imprints, a poem by 
Nicolaas Heinsius on the liberation of Breda, Breda expugnata, Leyden, 
1637, folio, and Blaise Pascal's Les Provinciales, Leyden, 1659, quarto. 

A book of sermons by the famous Augustinian preacher of Vienna, 
Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709), called Wohl angefulUer Wein- 
keller, Wiirzburg, 1710. 

Collections of statutes, regulations, treaties, etc.: Strassburg (66 
items) and Brunswick (421 items) in Germany; Chartres, Meaux, 
Senlis, and Berry in France; Tuscany (210 items) in Italy. 

From the Risorgimento of the Italian nineteenth-century: All of the 
48 numbers oi Vindicator e Livornese, a literary journal to which Mazzini 
contributed and which, after a life of only one year, was suppressed in 
1830 because of its liberalism. Also, a pamphlet volume of fifty-four 
items all of which appeared at Naples in 1848 — revolutionary songs, 
constitutions, pamphlets on the Jesuits, the poem Cracovia by Gabriele 
Rossetti, 28 (of 33) issues oi UAmico del Popolo (published 1848-1849), 
and numerous other political leaflets, some of them of only one page. 

A number of first editions of French surrealist writers, including 
works by Jouhandeau, Rigaut, Chirico, Crevel, and Aragon, and the 
first and only issue of the periodical Surrealisme, October, 1924. Also, 
complete runs of two earlier journals, Les Ecrits nouveaux (1917-1922) 
and Le Parnasse contemporain (1866-1876). 

L. W. R. 

Theodore Dreiser Collection — Addenda 

In May, 1958 two trunks and fifteen cartons of business records, 
manuscripts and books of Theodore Dreiser arrived at the Library from 


California. Mrs. Myrtle Butcher and Mr. Harold Dies, the executors of 
the estate of Mrs. Helen Dreiser, made possible this invaluable addition 
to the Theodore Dreiser Collection already at the University. 

How often the student of literary history or the writer of an author's 
biography are baffled by not being able to come upon the practical de- 
tails of author-publisher relationships or the actual records of a writer's 
publications — because the harassed publishing houses cannot store 
business records indefinitely, because a firm prominent thirty years ago 
is now out of business, or because the author himself gave loving care to 
his manuscripts but paid little attention to retaining old contracts and 
correspondence once the financial details had been settled. 

Fortunately for future research, Dreiser's own concern for his records 
and the careful administration of them by the executors have taken care 
of this problem for one major American writer. As this latest material is 
now arranged, there are fifteen boxes of contracts and correspondence 
with Dreiser's American and foreign publishers, agents and translators, 
from approximately 1923 to the late 1930's. In addition to material 
already in the collection, there are now the records with the American 
publishers Boni and Liveright, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Simon and 
Schuster, John Lane, and Harpers, with files on copyrights, litigations 
between the author and publisher, and the author's statistics on the 
sale of his books from 1900 to 1931. 

The European interest in Dreiser and the results of efforts to circulate 
his books abroad can now be more fully examined. Two boxes of records 
having to do with Germany reveal his relationship with Paul Zsolnay in 
Berlin and Vienna, and Tauchnitz in Leipzig, and the various efforts to 
locate satisfactory translators and to collect royalties due. There is one 
box of correspondence and contracts between Dreiser and Curtis Brown 
and Constable and Company in England in the late 1920's. Five more 
boxes contain the business transactions between Dreiser and publishers 
and agents in France, Holland, Japan, South America, Spain, Den- 
mark, Sweden, Poland, Roumania, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Jugoslavia, 
Austria, Hungary, Italy, and Switzerland. 

In Dreiser's later years in California, he and Mrs. Dreiser were ac- 
tively engaged in promoting the filming of many of his stories and 
novels. There are synopses and scripts of Sister Carrie and An American 
Tragedy by Dreiser, H. S. Kraft, Kathryn Sayre, and Patrick Kearney. 
The ''''Genius" and the trilogy. The Financier, The Titan, and The Stoic, 
were also given dramatic treatment by various people, with Dreiser's 
suggestions and corrections, indicating interesting attitudes of the 
author toward his novels. 

"My Gal Sal," the musical movie on the life of Paul Dresser, the 
popular song writer and Dreiser's brother, was based on information 
received from the family; two boxes of clippings, letters, and the scenario 
tell the detailed story of that event. 


There are personal business records and correspondence between 
Mr. and Mrs. Dreiser which are restricted for the present, with some 
early diaries of his experiences in Indiana and Pennsylvania. Passports, 
photographs, travel notes, luggage inventories, and letters tell the in- 
timate account of his European journeys. 

Scrapbooks which Mrs. Dreiser kept contain many of the most sig- 
nificant letters written to Dreiser over the years, with one book filled 
with letters which she received after his death in 1945. 

The executors also have added to the collection books which Mrs. 
Dreiser retained for her own use after the main part of the library of 
2,000 volumes were catalogued and stored at the University in 1949. 
Three hundred volumes include autographed editions of Sherwood 
Anderson, Konrad Bercovici, Carl Sandburg, H. L. Mencken, and 
Edgar Lee Masters. Two hundred and forty more books are all editions 
of Dreiser's own works, many in foreign translation, with American 
first editions inscribed to Mrs. Dreiser. Perhaps the greatest treasure in 
the Dreiser library is now the first edition of Sister Carrie (1900) with 
this inscription, "To my dear Father with a sort of inheritance proviso 
by which I manage to inscribe it also to Mame and Austin [Dreiser's 
sister and brother-in-law]. If any of you fail to read and praise it the 
book reverts to me. With love (according to precedence) Theodore." 

N. M. W. 


Cftarlesf C. iSuttertoorft 


On April 9, 1958, the Friends of the Library and the 
University of Pennsylvania lost a good friend of long 
standing. Mr. Charles C. Butterworth, College, 
1915, was born April 1, 1894. After service in the 
First World War, graduate work at the University 
of Pennsylvania and at Jesus College, Cambridge, 
Mr. Butterworth was an instructor of English at the 
University from 1919 to 1927. During this period he 
began research on the history of the English versions 
of the Bible and published The Literary Lineage of the 
King James Bible, 1941, and English Primers, 1953. 
For over forty years he was a devoted student of the 
Bible and wrote many articles dealing with its his- 
tory for The Library (London), the Papers of the 
American Bibliographical Society, the Library Chron- 
icle, the General Magazine (University of Pennsyl- 
vania), and the Bulletin of the New York Public 
Library. Throughout his life Mr. Butterworth made 
many gifts of valuable books and funds to the Uni- 
versity Library. He was a personal friend of many 
members of the staff, and those who knew him and 
worked with him miss his kind, genteel, and learned 


Report from the Secretary 
of the Friends of the Library 

SINCE the Secretary's report in the spring issue of the 
Library Chronicle, 1957, the Friends have presented an ex- 
hibition of rare stamps and coins from the collection of Mr. Philip 
H. Ward, Jr., at which Mr. Ward spoke on his experiences as a 
collector and the rewards of collecting; an exhibition and tea 
announcing the Library's acquisition of the manuscripts and 
papers of James T. Farrell; an open house for Friends and inter- 
ested scholars in honor of Mr. Gordon A. Block, Jr., who has 
presented the Library with a collection of rare Bibles in honor of 
his mother; and a lecture by Mr. Alfred Bendiner on "Good- 
Humored Architecture" and an exhibition of his drawings, 
prints, and paintings. 

The Friends have purchased three sets of unique lecture notes 
written by students at the School of Medicine of the University 
shortly after its founding. These notes increase considerably the 
value of the Library's holdings in Benjamin Rush material and 
the history of the University. 

The contributions of the Friends toward the purchase of the 
Teerink Collection of Jonathan Swift materials have now been 
expended. The Collection has been catalogued. And several 
members of the Friends have contributed further Swift materials 
which, added to the Collection, considerably enhance its value. 

Through the Friends, the Library was able to make available 
to the students and faculty of the University one of the outstand- 
ing exhibits of the Library of Congress on the "American City in 
the 19th Century." 

At Christmas time, the Friends received greetings bearing a 
reproduction of material in the Library's Rare Book Collection. 
These Christmas cards were paid for by the sale of similar un- 
inscribed cards to the public. 


We announce with regret that since January, 1957, the follow- 
ing Friends have died: 

Mr. C. Barton Brewster Miss Amy Comegys 

Mr. Charles C. Butterworth Dr. William H. DuBarry 
Dr. Williams B. Cadwalader 

Membership contributions for 1957 totaled $5,132.70. For the 
period January to July, 1958, the total was $2,803.83. Expendi- 
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tributions should be submitted to The Editor, The Library Chronicle, University of 
Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia 4, Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Fleming, Elizabethan Clergyman 

William E. Miller* 

THE Dictionary of National Biography has understandably laid 
considerable weight upon published works as a criterion for 
inclusion within its pages. It is no doubt for this reason that 
Abraham Fleming (1552?-1607) received liberal treatment in a 
competent article by Thompson Cooper, whereas Abraham's 
older brother Samuel, who was in many ways a more interesting 
man, was neglected. 

According to Francis Thynne, Samuel and Abraham Fleming 
were "Londoners borne. "^ Samuel's approximate birth date can 
be inferred from the admission record of King's College, Cam- 
bridge University, which he entered in 1565 at the age of 
seventeen. 2 

It is very likely that Samuel Fleming, his brother Abraham, 
and their sister Esther (Hester) were born of parents who were 
precisians, or Puritans. Only these three children of the family 
are now known; the fact that all three bore Old Testament 
names can hardly have been a coincidence; such names in the 
sixteenth century were a patent mark of Puritan beliefs. As far as 
we can now judge, the mature Samuel Fleming was a middle-of- 
the-road man, but Abraham exhibited clearly many of the 
stigmata of Calvinism, as has been pointed out by Sarah C. 

No records have come to light to show whether or not Samuel 
Fleming attended a petty school; in fact, we have evidence of 
only two years' formal study preparatory to the University. 
According to Sterry's Register, Fleming entered Eton in 1563, no 
doubt in the late summer or early autumn.^ In October of that 
year Queen Elizabeth came to Windsor to escape the plague, and 
the students of Eton prepared a book of verses which was pre- 
sented to her. Samuel Fleming was one of the young authors of 
this book.^ Nothing is known of Fleming's life at Eton except that 
he was a good student; it may be that the severe discipline then 
prevailing in that school stimulated him to great efforts.^ He 

* University of Pennsylvania. 


entered King's College, Cambridge University, as a King's 
Scholar, on 27 August 1565.^ 

Cambridge was a stirring place in those days; in some respects 
King's was less agitated by exciting events than other colleges. 
For example, King's was obedient when some others were creat- 
ing a hubbub over ecclesiastical habits.^ Most of the quarrels 
between the Puritans and the right-wing Anglicans seem to have 
passed them by. On the other hand, the fellows and students of 
King's appear to have been hard to satisfy with respect to their 
provosts. In September, 1569, Dr. Philip Baker was complained 
of for keeping popish ornaments, and the Queen's Commissioners 
sat in the matter. Baker terminated the proceedings by fleeing, 
perhaps to Louvain, whereupon he was declared deprived.^ His 
successor Roger Goad had better fortune. In 1576 Giles Fletcher, 
Robert Liles, Stephen Lakes, Robert Johnson, and Robert 
Dunning, fellows of King's College, alleged that they had forty 
charges against Goad; however, they were able to produce only 
twenty-five, and these not strong ones. The historian John 
Strype says that the charges were malicious. In any event, 
nothing came of the matter. 

Strype points to the fact that one of the complaining students 
was Stephen Lakes, a man of haughty disposition who had been 
reproved by Dr. Goad for wearing under his gown a cut taffeta 
doublet of the fashion with his sleeves out, and a great pair of 
"galligastion" hose. Goad had punished Lakes a week's commons 
for this unscholarly apparel. Lakes and Dunning for their part in 
the complaint were committed by the Chancellor to the gate- 
house, from which place of imprisonment they wrote letters of 
submission to Lord Burghley.^° Lakes had come up from Eton 
with Samuel Fleming. They had been in competition for highest 
place in the Ordo senioritatis for both the bachelor's degree (in 
which Lakes ranked first in their year), and the master's degree. 

Samuel Fleming was not the kind of person that allows himself 
to become involved in such disputes. We have no evidence that 
he exhibited any interest in activities other than those of religion 
and scholarship. It is not likely that he was seduced by the 
thriving drama, both commercial and collegiate, that was at- 
tracting so much attention among students of the University." 


On 28 August 1 568 Fleming became a fellow of King's and so 
remained for about thirteen years. ^^ In spite of his fellowship, 
Fleming was undoubtedly subject to the pinch of that same 
poverty of which we have testimony in the works of his brother 
Abraham. Samuel is reported to have received six shillings and 
eight pence on 3 April 1569 under the terms of a will which 
devised a fund for the relief of poor students. Giles Fletcher and 
many others were beneficiaries at the same time. Four years 
later, on 20 April 1573, Fleming received twenty shillings, an 
unusually high amount, whether for need or merit it is now un- 
certain. In the record of payment on this occasion Fleming was 
designated "poore scholler of the kinges colledge in Cambridge. "^^ 

Samuel Fleming graduated B.A. in 1569-70,^^ revealing by his 
standing in the Ordo senioritatis his industry during the five 
academic years since his enrollment. His rank was seventh in an 
Ordo of 114 students, immediately ahead of Giles Fletcher (the 
elder), who was eighth, and Gabriel Harvey, who was ninth. 
Thomas Speght of Feterhouse, who became one of the best- 
known of Chaucer scholars, stood fifty-fifth in the same Ordo}^ 
When Abraham Fleming took his bachelor's degree, he was 
ranked 116 in an Ordo of 213 names. 

Samuel Fleming went on to take his master's degree at the end 
of the academic year 1572-73, declining to eleventh place in an 
Ordo of sixty-three students. Gabriel Harvey exhibited his matur- 
ing intellectual powers by climbing to first place. Fletcher 
descended with Fleming, but kept his former position relative to 
Fleming (immediately following). Speght was twenty-fifth.^^ 
Finally, at the end of the academic year 1579-80 Fleming took 
the degree of Bachelor of Divinity (or Bachelor of Theology, 
indicated by the letters B.D. or S.T.B.). This time he was tenth 
in an Ordo of sixteen.'^ 

In the meantime Fleming had been ordained deacon and 
priest of the English Church. The ceremony was performed by 
Thomas Cooper, Bishop of Lincoln, in the chapel within the 
manor of Buckden, on 25 October 1576.^^ In December of the 
same year John Harington matriculated from King's, and 
Samuel Fleming became his tutor. Harington mentioned him 
several times in surviving writings with the most profound 


respect. Most revealing perhaps is his comment in the prefatory 
matter to his translation of Orlando Furioso: 

... I will tell you an accident that happened vnto my selfe. When I 
was entred a prettie way into the translation, about the seuenth booke, 
comming to write that where Melissa in the person of Rogeros Tutor, 
comes and reproues Roger o in the 4. staffer 

Was it for this, that I in youth thee fed 
With marrow? &c. And againe: 
Is this a meanes, or readie way you trow, 
That other worthie men haue trod before, 
A Caesar or a Scipio to grow? &c. 

Straight I began to thinke, that my Tutor, a graue and learned man, 
and one of a verie austere life, might say to me in like sort, Was it for 
this, that I read Aristotle and Plato to you, and instructed you so care- 
fully both in Greek and Latin? to haue you now becom a translator of 
Italian toyes? But while I thought thus, I was aware, that it was no 
toy that could put such an honest and serious consideration into my 

Samuel Fleming must have acquired a respectable reputation 
as a public speaker and preacher. When the Queen went on 
progress during the summer of 1578, she visited Audley End in 
Norfolk, the seat of Sir Henry Lee (Leigh), the Queen's personal 
champion. During her brief stay she was waited upon by the 
vice-Chancellor and heads of colleges of Cambridge, and a dis- 
putation was held on 27 July 1578 for the profit and pleasure of 
the Court. Fleming of King's upheld solus the affirmative of two 
questions: 1) Clementia magis in Principe laudanda quam 
severitas, and 2) Astra non imponunt necessitatem.^'' His op- 
ponents were Harvey of Pembroke, Palmer of St. John's, and 
Hawkins of Peterhouse. Fletcher of King's was to have been 
moderator, but Lord Burghley as Chancellor of the University 
took that office upon himself. ^^ 

When a dispute arose at Cambridge whether rhetorical figures 
("tropes") and other artificial ornaments of speech taken from 
profane authors such as "sentences" and adages might properly 
be used in sermons, Samuel Fleming "by appointment of the 
heads of the colledges, in an excellent sermon determind the 
controversie." The decision was: "That seing now the extra- 


ordinarie guifts, first of tongues, next of miracles, was ceased; 
and that knowledge is not now infusa^ but acquisita, we should not 
despise the helpe of any humane learning; as neither St. Paule 
did, who used the sentences of poets, as well as of prophetts, and 
hath manie excellent tropes, with exaggerations and exclama- 
tions in his epistles: for chastity doth not abhorre all ornaments, 
and Judeth did attire her head as curiouslie as Jesabel. . . ."^^ 
In this instance it is evident that Samuel Fleming was taking a 
stand in behalf of the authorities against the Puritan extremists 
who found ornament even in the rhetoric of sermons a stumbling 

On 1 1 April 1581 Samuel Fleming was instituted to the rector- 
ship of Cottenham in Cambridgeshire.^^ He had probably been 
acting there in a minor clerical capacity while he was still in 
attendance at the University, for under the date of 1579 there is 
an entry in the registers of the diocese of Ely, "Sam. Flemyng 
M.A. Preacher or Curate y^^ Also in 1581, probably on or about 19 
September, Fleming was admitted to the benefice of the parish of 
Bottesford in Leicestershire.^^ He thus became a pluralist, but 
neither he nor anyone else betrayed any stirrings of conscience as 
a result, though he appears to have kept both livings until his 
death almost forty years later. The patrons of the church at 
Bottesford during Fleming's ministry were Edward Manners, 
third Earl of Rutland, and his successors. ^^ 

A chaplain to the Earl of Rutland died in 1582.^ It may be 
that Samuel Fleming succeeded to the vacancy. By 1586 at the 
latest Fleming was one of the chaplains to the Earl of Rutland; 
in that year he accompanied his patron, in a train of about five 
hundred persons, to the negotiations and ceremonies involved in 
the signing of the treaty of Berwick on 20 June. The names of the 
more important persons in the party are listed as: "The Erie of 
Rutland; Mr. Jhon Manners, his brother; Sir Robert Cunstable, 
knight; Mr. George Campolle of Linconsheir; Mr. Docter 
Marberke, my lord's phisition; Mr. Flemminge; Mr. Gygon, his 
lordship's Chapleines."^^ 

Fleming was chaplain to four earls of Rutland in succession: 
Edward (d.l587), John (d.1587/8), Roger (d.l612), and Francis 
(d. 1632). 2^ Of these four, by far the best known to modern readers 


is Roger. When he was in London, he seems to have divided his 
time between play-going and treasonable activities in the com- 
pany of the Earl of Essex. ^° So enthusiastic a follower of the 
theater can hardly have escaped seeing some of Shakespeare's 
plays. Indeed, Roger Manners has been suspected by some 
amateur scholars of being Shakespeare.^^ It was for Roger's 
younger brother Francis, who succeeded to the title, that 
Shakespeare invented and Richard Burbage painted an impresa 
(device to be placed on a shield for a tournament) .^^ It is doubt- 
ful whether Fleming had any contact with Shakespeare. Even if 
the playwright had visited Belvoir Castle, as he may well have 
done in the days of the fun-loving Roger, Fleming would have 
been unlikely to appear in such light company. 

Samuel Fleming's two benefices and his chaplaincy must have 
raised him above the financial cares that had in some degree 
oppressed him as a young man. Bottesford alone was worth 
£51 5s. a year.^' What Samuel's total income was we have no 
means of knowing, but he was sufficiently prosperous by 1592 to 
make a Commencement donation of two shillings and six pence 
toward the building of a steeple for the church of St. Mary the 
Great at Cambridge.^* We have the name of a servant employed 
by Fleming.^^ 

On 18 February 1586/7 Samuel's sister Esther was married 
to Thomas Davenport (sometimes written Damport), minister of 
Harston in Leicestershire. Their marriage appears in the Bottes- 
ford register, and it is reasonable to suppose that Samuel Fleming 
performed the ceremony. Harston is a village a few miles from 
Bottesford. If Esther Fleming was visiting her brother Samuel or 
was acting as his housekeeper, there would probably have been 
many opportunities for meeting clergymen attached to surround- 
ing parishes. 

It is possible that Fleming was awarded the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity between 8 December 1590 and 8 July 1592. Between 
these two dates there was a change of style of Fleming from B.D. 
to D.D. in the Manor of Cottenham, Court Rolls. ^® The eight- 
eenth-century antiquarian Anthony Allen wrote, in a record 
which is a part of a manuscript series of biographies of members 
of King's College now preserved in the college library, that 


Samuel Fleming was in time "dignified with the Degree of 
D.D."^^ Moreover, he was almost invariably called "Doctor 
Fleming" in later life. On the other hand, I have not been able to 
find any record of an award of the doctorate to Fleming in the 
published documents of either Oxford or Cambridge. Certainly 
the Venns knew nothing of it when they compiled Alumni 

Many an obscure book and many a man less well-known than 
Samuel Fleming have stirred interest by their connections (often 
remote) with the origins of New World culture. Fleming's title 
to fame in this category comes from the agreement on common 
rights made at Cottenham in 1596, among the holders of land 
there. Samuel Fleming's name is recited with others as that of a 
party to the agreement made between William Hinde of Madd- 
ingley of the one part; and the heads and scholars of several 
Cambridge colleges, Samuel Fleming parson of the rectory of 
Cottenham, Hobson the famous Cambridge carrier, several of the 
Pepys family, and others of the second part.^^ The editor of 
Common Rights at Cottenham & Stretham in Cambridgeshire points to 
this agreement as playing an important part in the constitutional 
and political history of the United States through its influence 
upon similar agreements in force in Massachusetts a few years 
later, at Chelsea in 1638, at Maiden in 1678, and at Lexington.^^ 

Fleming had at least one assistant at Bottesford, and several at 
Cottenham at various times. ^° He would need a curate at one 
place or the other constantly, and probably at both, especially 
if he made a practice of accompanying his patrons on their 
travels as he had done in the case of the third Earl's journey to 
Berwick. At least from the summer of 1 596 to the summer of 1 597, 
Roger, the fifth Earl, was abroad in Italy and France; Fleming 
may have been with him.^^ 

A painstaking search of county records would probably reveal 
many instances of Fleming's functioning in positions of trust. At 
least one such record has been published. Under the will of 
Richard Wilde of Nettleworth in Nottinghamshire, proved 24 
July 1592, lands previously given in trust to Samuel Fleming and 
Richard Innocente "to the use of myself and brother Gervase or 
either of us," were now given to Gervase and his heirs. "To 


Samuell Fleminge" was devised "a ringe worthe twentie shill- 
inges." Fleming and one Robert Rastell were to be supervisors of 
the will. ^2 

On the whole, Fleming's choice of a rural life and his discretion 
must have given him a fairly placid existence, in spite of the 
vagaries of his patrons. On one occasion he may have been per- 
sonally involved in the royal displeasure. When Elizabeth, 
Countess of Rutland, was in the Queen's bad graces during the 
summer of 1594 for allowing her daughter, the Lady Bridget 
Manners, to marry Robert Tyrwhit, she received news from 
Court that it was the Queen's belief that the young woman had 
been encouraged by her mother, since the marriage could hardly 
have taken place without the mother's knowledge, "the same 
beinge no lesse than the mariage of your owne daughter, in your 
owne house, and by your owne chaplain." On 24 November of 
the same year. Lord Hunsdon, the Lord Chamberlain, wrote to 
intimate that the Queen's anger was somewhat appeased, at least 
toward the young couple, though she still blamed the Countess of 
Rutland in the affair. ^^ 

Belvoir Castle, the principal seat of the Manners family, was so 
situated as to be a convenient stopping place for parties passing 
between the North and South of England. One of the most 
impressive of these visits must have been that which was made by 
King James when he was on his way to receive the English 
crown. He stayed for the night of 22-23 April 1603 at Belvoir, 
The solemnity of the occasion was heightened by the facts that 
the King arrived on Good Friday and that he created almost 
fifty new knights then and there. ^* 

In 1607 Samuel Fleming received a visit from his brother 
Abraham which ended at Abraham's death on 18 September. He 
was commended to future memory by a memorial brass inscribed 
with verses in Latin written by his own hand. This brass is now 
to be seen in the floor of the chancel of the church of St. Mary the 
Virgin at Bottesford, where Samuel Fleming was once rector. 
Though Samuel Fleming was older than his brother by about 
four years, he survived him by thirteen years, and was active 
almost until his death. One or two honors came to him in this 
latter stage of his life. On 19 January 1609/10 Samuel Fleming 


was collated to the office of prebendary of Southwell, and on the 
last day of that month he was admitted thereto, succeeding 
Thomas Pettye, who had died.^^ When Roger, the fifth Earl of 
Rutland, died, the choristers of Southwell sang at his funeral in 
the church at Bottesford. Fleming was entrusted with the dis- 
tribution of their fee of twenty pounds. ^^ 

In view of Fleming's position in the Church it is pleasant to 
notice that, without any record of interference or protest from 
him, the Dedham Classis, one of the pioneer bodies of English 
Presbyterianism, met from time to time at Bottesford.'*'' It must 
be admitted indeed that Samuel Fleming may secretly have 
shared some of the non-orthodox sentiments that circulated at 
Cambridge in his day. Moreover, Presbyterian beliefs and prac- 
tices did not excite the degree of odium that attached to some of 
the more radical bodies. One of the Presbyterian synods was held 
at Cambridge, in St. John's College, in ISSQ.''^ 

Fleming's public record ends with a sinister act. Henry Man- 
ners, infant son of Francis, sixth Earl of Rutland, fell ill, died, and 
was buried on 26 September 1613. His brother Francis was 
afflicted but survived for five years more. Their mother was also 
ill. The belief that they had been bewitched seems to have grown 
slowly, finally coming to a focus of suspicion upon Joan Flower 
and her daughters Margaret and Philippa. Margaret had been 
in service at the castle and had been dismissed for pilfering; some 
accusers therefore offered vengeance as a motive for the wicked 
deeds. It was now noticed that Joan Flower had been behaving 
in a peculiar manner. One Thomas Simpson contributed the 
information that Philippa Flower had made amorous advances 
to him and had bewitched him when he repulsed her. Three 
other women, Anne Baker, Joan Willimot, and Ellen Green, 
were suspected of having practiced witchcraft with the Flowers, 
though it was the latter who were specifically accused of bewitch- 
ing the Earl's wife and children. 

All six women were arrested in 1618, five years after the sup- 
posed acts of witchcraft directed at the Manners family. They 
were examined before the Earl of Rutland, Francis Lord Will- 
oughby of Eresby, Sir George Manners, Sir William Pelham, Sir 
Henry Hastings, Samuel Fleming, and others, most of whom 


were Justices of the Peace for the County of Leicester. Margaret 
Flower accused her mother of witchcraft, and Phihppa con- 
fessed to deeds of witchcraft in behalf of her mother, her sister, 
and herself. The Flowers were consequently committed to prison 
at Lincoln to await the assizes. The mother died at Ancaster on 
her way to Lincoln. The two daughters were tried before Sir 
Henry Hobart, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir 
Edward Bromley, one of the Barons of the Exchequer. Having 
confessed their guilt, the two women were executed on 11 March 

Though he perhaps spent most of his time at Bottesford, 
Samuel Fleming appears to have visited his living at Cottenham 
at least upon occasion, perhaps at regular intervals, perhaps 
when he wished to visit old friends in Cambridge or attend 
ceremonies there. He died "in the Pulpit" of Cottenham church, 
probably in early September of 1620, and was buried, no doubt 
in the churchyard, on either the 12th or the 13th of that month. 
No monument for him is now to be found here or in the church 
at Bottesford. ^° 

About two months after her brother's death, on 14 November 
1620, Esther Davenport, a widow since 1618, married John 
Knowells of Bottesford, clerk. She survived less than two more 
years, since her burial took place on 8 May 1622. It appears that 
Samuel Fleming during his lifetime had made a gift of land for 
the foundation of a hospital for poor widows, not paupers, this 
land being reserved for his sister's use during her life.^^ Four days 
before her second marriage Esther Davenport enfeoffed John 
Knowells in two cottages in Bottesford and in certain lands "for 
the sole benefit and behoof of four poor, impotent, and aged 
widows of the parish of Bottesford . . . ," thus (as it seems) 
confirming her brother's gift.^^ Since Samuel Fleming left no will, 
letters of administration were issued; they appear to have been 
made in the name of Esther Davenport, though at the time of 
issue (June, 1622) she was already deceased. ^^ 

Samuel Fleming was not a prolific writer, though he com- 
menced promisingly with a group of Latin verses written at the 
age of fifteen or thereabouts. On her visit to Eton College in 1563 
Queen Elizabeth was presented with an elaborate manuscript 


book entitled "De adventu gratissimo ac maxime optato 
ELIZABETHAE, nobilissimae ac illustrissimae Reginae Angliae, 
Franciae, et Hiberniae, Fidei Defendatricis, ad has Arces 
triumphans Oratio." A learned oration is followed by seventy- 
two epigrams by about a score of students, many of them per- 
forming more than once, some as many as six times. Fleming 
contributed three epigrams with a total of forty-four lines. One 
uses the acrostic device at the beginnings of lines, the reading 
four-line epigram has an acrostic at both the beginning and the 
end of the lines, reading "VIVE" at the beginning and "VALE" 
at the end.^'' 

\ ntrtno Cfmdo mn cmf'^t A 
^ t pnim C^li tcp^i'ffs trikrtfi }. 



In the 1576 edition of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments there 
appeared a letter "To the Reader," signed "6am. Fleminge.'''' The 
letter is religious in nature, and there is no obvious clue to reveal 
the reason for Fleming's having been invited to contribute it, 
aside from his religious calling. The fact that this letter concludes 
with a "Farewell from Camb. Kinges Coll.'''' suggests that Fleming 
was not in close contact with the printers and publishers of 
London. ^^ It seems most likely that the invitation to contribute 
came from Richard Day, like Samuel Fleming a fellow of King's. 


who, according to J. F. Mozley in John Foxe and His Book, com- 
piled a fresh index for this third edition, wrote a poem, and seems 
to have seen the book through the press. ^^ 

According to Francis Thynne, Samuel Fleming was the author 
of an unpublished Latin history of the reign of Queen Mary 
Tudor. The reference appears in the account of Samuel and his 
brother which was made a part of the listing of historical writers 
by Thynne in the 1587 edition of Holinshed's Chronicles. Thynne 
wrote that it was an elegant work.^^ 

Finally, Samuel Fleming was the author of a commendatory 
poem in Latin attached to Edward Grant's Graecae linguae 
spicilegium (1575). 

I know of no evidence that Samuel Fleming ever married. As 
has been noticed, the Queen did not hesitate to interfere in the 
private affairs of the Manners family (as she did in the case of the 
Lady Bridget Manners' marriage); the Queen was notoriously 
opposed to marriage among the clergy; if the Manners had been 
so bold as to appoint or keep a married chaplain, it seems likely 
that there would have been some record of her disapproval. 


In preparing this paper I was greatly aided by the superior resources 
of English Renaissance materials in the University of Pennsylvania 
Libraries, especially in the Horace Howard Furness Memorial Library. 

1. Holinshed's Chronicles (1587), HI, 1590. 

2. John Venn and J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses, (Cambridge, 
1922-27), part 1. 

3. "Abraham Fleming, Writer and Editor," The University of Texas 
Studies in English, XXXIV (1955), 51-66. 

4. Quoted to me by Tom Lyon, Esq., Librarian of Eton College. 

5. Among the others were Giles Fletcher, who became Ambassador 
to Russia; Stephen Lakes, a brilliant and rebellious fellow who 
later made himself notorious at King's College, Cambridge; and 
John Long, later Archbishop of Armagh. 

6. Roger Ascham told of his meeting with certain important persons 
of the Court, on 10 December 1563, at which meeting Lord 
Burghley reported that he had news from Eton of various scholars' 
having run away for fear of a beating. Cf. English Works, ed. W. A. 
Wright (Cambridge, 1904), p. 175. In view of connections that can 


be observed to have existed between Cecil and the Fleming 
brothers, it is not impossible that Cecil's informant was Samuel 

7. Alumni Cantabrigienses. 

8. Letter of eleven fellows to the Chancellor, 17 December 1565. 
Charles Henry Cooper, Annals of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1842-45), 
II, 224. 

9. Cooper, Annals, II, 244ff. 

10. John Strype, Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion in 
the Church of England, During Queen Elizabeth'' s Happy Reign (Oxford, 
1824), II, ii, 36-41; and Cooper, Annals, II, 346. 

1 1 . Gammer Gurtons Nedle is said to have been first performed in Christ's 
College, Cambridge. 

12. For the date I am indebted to A. N. L. Munby, Esq., Librarian, 
King's College, Cambridge. 

13. The Spending of the Money of Robert Nowell of Reade Hall, Lancashire: 
Brother of Dean Alexander Nowell, 1568-1580, ed. Alexander B. 
Grosart (for private circulation, 1877), pp. 178 and 184. Lancelot 
Andrewes received ten shillings in March of 1573. 

14. Probably on 16 March, since the Thursday before Palm Sunday 
was the normal day for awarding the degree of bachelor, as distinct 
from the higher degrees which were conferred at Commencement, 
the first Tuesday in July. 

15. Grace Book A, Containing the Records of the University of Cambridge for 
the Tears 1542-1589, ed. John Venn (Cambridge, 1910), p. 233. In 
his introduction Dr. Venn discusses the significance of the Ordo 
senioritatis and concludes that it is "nearly certain that some notion 
of merit, in the sense of intellectual superiority, must have been 
recognized all along [i.e. over and above a change in its significance 
that seemingly culminated in the first part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury] ; at least as far as the men toward the top of the list are con- 
cerned" (p. ix). Fletcher and Fleming had come up from Eton 

16. Grace Book A, pp. 261-263. 

17. Grace Book A, pp. 331-332. 

18. Lincoln Episcopal Records in the Time of Thomas Cooper, S.T.P., Bishop 
of Lincoln A.D. 1571 to A.D. 1584, ed. C. W. Foster (London, 1913), 
p. 87. The fact that the ordination was performed in the diocese of 
Lincoln may tend to indicate that whatever ties the Flemings had 
with London were broken. There are other indications to the same 
effect. Abraham Fleming was ordained in the diocese of Peter- 


borough. He was buried in his brother's parish church of Bottesford 
in Leicestershire. Samuel Fleming himself was buried at Cottenham 
in Cambridgeshire. A few years after Samuel Fleming's ordination 
by Bishop Cooper, Abraham Fleming compiled a table of common- 
places for Cooper's Certaine Sermons VVherin Is Contained the Defense 
of the Gospell (1580), but it is unlikely that there was any connection 
between the two events. 

19. Orlando Furioso in English Heroical Verse by John Harington. Imprinted 
by Richard Field, 1591. Samuel Fleming is identified in the margin 
as the tutor referred to. See also Nugae Antiquae, ed. Henry Haring- 
ton and later Thomas Park (London, 1804), especially the account 
of the Bishop of Peterborough, Dr. Thomas Dove, and the letter 
written by Lord Burghley to the young John Harington (son of his 
old friend John Harington the elder) in which Burghley recom- 
mended to the younger Harington, then under the tutelage of 
Samuel Fleming, the method of double translation employed by Sir 
John Cheke (and after him by Roger Ascham). In the extract 
quoted, John Harington put in the mouth of Samuel Fleming a 
sentiment about "Italian toyes" that sounds as if it might have 
come from the pen of Roger Ascham. Fleming may indeed have 
come under the direct or indirect influence of Ascham, whose 
connections with Cambridge were so intimate. In turn, Fleming 
must have exerted a powerful sway over Harington. Tutor and 
pupil lived in so close an association in the Cambridge colleges that 
the tutor's personal life as well as his mental abilities and accom- 
plishments must have influenced his pupils profoundly for good or 
ill. Tutor and pupil even occupied the same quarters, the pupil's 
truckle bed (or trundle bed) being stored beneath the tutor's when 
not in use. Cf. The Second Part of The Return from Parnassus, lines 942- 
958, in The Three Parnassus Plays, ed. J. B. Leishman (London, 
1949), pp. 285-286. 

20. Several of Shakespeare's characters took positions on the second 
proposition. Cassius' argument "The fault, dear Brutus, is not in 
our stars, / But in ourselves, that we are underlings" (Julius Caesar, 
I. ii) is opposed to Kent's "It is the stars, / The stars above us, 
govern our conditions . . ." (King Lear, IV. iii). 

21. The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth, ed. John 
Nichols (London, 1788-1821), II, i-iv. Also Cooper, Annals, II, 
362-365. The record does not show whether or not Fleming was 
mauled by the formidable opposition. In spite of an evident want of 
information about the event, Thomas Nashe used it for ammunition 
in his perpetual war with Gabriel Harvey. The Works of Thomas 
Nashe, ed. R. B. McKerrow, reprint, ed. F. P. Wilson (Oxford, 


1958), III, 73-78. The Queen herself had retired and was not 
present at the disputation, a fact of which Nashe was not at first 
aware. According to Nichols, the students could not find lodging in 
Walden and so were obliged to return to Cambridge in the middle 
of the night. 

22. Nugae Antiquae, II, 206-209. The selection of Fleming is striking 
because of the large number of University preachers. Lansdowne 
MS 33 (British Museum) lists more than 130 of them, including 
Samuel Fleming, for the year 1581. 

23. Common Rights at Cottenham & Stretham in Cambridgeshire, ed. W. 
Cunningham (Camden Society, 1910), p. 189. The head of the 
Pepys family, from which the diarist sprang, was the patron during 
Fleming's incumbency. The resignation of Fleming's predecessor at 
Cottenham, Edward Leeds, LL.D., was dated 27 November, 23 
Elizabeth (1 580). John Pepys's letter to the Bishop of Ely requesting 
the admission of Samuel Fleming in Leeds's place was written on 
1 March, 23 Elizabeth (1580/1). Cambridge University Library 
Manuscript Mm. 1.39 (Baker 28), pp. 78-79, bears a copy of this 
letter. See also Alumni Cantabrigienses. 

24. Ely Episcopal Records, ed. A. Gibbons (for private circulation, 1891), 
p. 177. 

25. Lincoln Episcopal Records, p. 43. 

26. A law against holding more than one living at the same time, which 
was enacted about 1588, is recorded by Strype, Annals of the Re- 
formation, III, ii, 53-54. Those persons who already possessed more 

than one benefice might keep them, but they must reside at one of 
them. Fines were prescribed for absence. Cf. Sedley L. Ware, The 
Elizabethan Parish in Its Ecclesiastical and Financial Aspects (Baltimore, 
1908), p. 26; and L. G. Bolingbroke, "The Reformation of a 
Norfolk Parish," Norfolk Archaeology, XIII (1898), 199-216. 

27. The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, G.C.B., Preserved at 
Belvoir Castle (London, 1888-1905), I, 135. 

28. Calendar of State Papers Relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots 
7547-7603, ed. Markham John Thorpe et al. (London, 1858-1936), 
VIII, 453. Several people of the name of Constable in the party 
were undoubtedly related to the poet, whose grandmother was a 
Manners. "Mr. Gygon" was probably John Jegon, who was Bishop 
of Norwich from 1602 to 1618. He acted as tutor in the family of 
Manners for a time. 

29. There are records of activity on Fleming's part in the service of all 
four of these holders of the title. It might be added that this vener- 
able title is still in the same family. Charles Manners, tenth Duke 


of Rutland, is the present holder, Belvoir Castle is still the family 
residence, but the estate is now the Belvoir Estates, Ltd. For this 
information I am indebted to the Reverend Canon A. T. G. Black- 
more, M.A., Rector of the church of St. Mary the Virgin at Bottes- 
ford. Samuel Fleming was an important figure at the funerals of the 
first three earls mentioned, not only because of his position as 
chaplain but also because of his functions as rector of the Bottesford 
parish church, which was the traditional place of burial of the Earls 
of Rutland. At least three of the tombs in the church were designed 
by members of the family of Janssen (Johnson), who were also the 
designers of Shakespeare's tomb in the Stratford church. In design- 
ing Shakespeare's tomb the Johnsons used plans which they had 
already devised for a monument at Bottesford, simplifying them as 
befitted Shakespeare's inferior rank (and, no doubt, the lower cost 
of his monument). Joseph Quincy Adams, A Life of William 
Shakespeare (Boston, 1925), pp. 478-480. 

30. For his attendance at plays see Letters and Memorials of State, ed. 
Arthur Collins (London, 1746), II, 90-91 and 132. Roger's par- 
ticipation in Essex's revolt was perhaps no more than the foolishness 
of a young man led astray by a man of considerable charm who was 
ten years his elder and had seen a good deal of the world. Roger 
was sent to the Tower but was released after a six months' term. 
The High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire was ordered by the Privy 
Council to seize Belvoir Castle and the Earl's lands, goods, and 
chattels. It transpires, however, from a rather uncommunicative 
group of published documents that the Queen, gradually relenting, 
was satisfied at length with the assessment of an enormous fine 
(variously reported as £20,000 and £30,000). Rutland was even 
restored to limited Parliamentary functions. Acts of the Privy Council, 
N.S. XXXI (1600-01), 148-149, 371, and 487; and XXXII (1601- 
04), 143. See also The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, 
I, 373-374. 

31. E.g. Celestin Demblon, Lord Rutland est Shakespeare: Le plus grand des 
Mysteres devoile Shaxper de Stratford liars cause (Paris, 1913), and Claud 
W. Sykes, Alias William Shakespeare? (London, 1947). Roger Man- 
ners certainly had some associations with literary people. He mar- 
ried Sir Philip Sidney's daughter Elizabeth. 

32. The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, IV, 494 (31 March 

33. William Burton, The Description of Leicester Shire (London, 1622), 
sig. Gl^ 

34. Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge, from 1504 to 
1635, ed. J. E. Foster (Cambridge, 1905), f. 197a. 


35. His name was John Underwood. See John Nichols, The History and 
Antiquities of the County of Leicester (London, 1795-1815), II, i, 91, 

36. For this information I am indebted to the Reverend L. S. Maurice, 
M.A., present Rector of Cottenham in Cambridgeshire. 

37. For this information I am indebted to A, N. L. Munby, Esq., 
Librarian of King's College. 

38. No signature of Fleming is to be found with the others at the end 
of the (published) document. 

39. Common Rights, p. 183. 

40. Nichols, Leicester, II, i, 93, records the burial on 18 August 1586 of 
Mr. John Harford, minister of Bottesford. He also states (Leicester, 
II, i, 93) that Edmund Higginbotham was curate at Bottesford in 
1602. John Knowells, second husband of Samuel Fleming's sister 
Esther, was stipendiary curate of Bottesford from 1617 to 1620 and 
from 1622 to 1646. For this and for much other information con- 
cerning Esther Davenport Knowells and her marriages I am in- 
debted to the Reverend J. E. H. Wood, M.A., Rector of Knipton 
near Grantham. I am indebted to the Reverend L. S. Maurice of 
Cottenham for a list of curates who were at Cottenham in Samuel 
Fleming's time. 

41. Thomas Birch, Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, from the Tear 
1581 Till Her Death (London, 1754), II, 59; and The Manuscripts of 
His Grace the Duke of Rutland, I, 339. If Fleming went to the Conti- 
nent at this time, it will be necessary to look no further for an 
explanation of his failure to sign the Cottenham common rights 

42. North Country Wills (Durham, 1912), Surtees Society Publications, 
CXXI, II, 151-152. Gervase Wilde was captain of one of the 
English ships that fought the Armada. 

43. The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, I, 322—324. It is not 
clear what the source of the Queen's objection to Tyrwhit was. He 
was son and heir to Sir Robert Tyrwhit, knight, of Kettleby in 

44. Irvin Eller, The History of Belvoir Castle, from the Conquest to the 
Nineteenth Century (London, 1841), p. 58; and The Progresses, Proces- 
sions, and Magnificent Festivities of King James the First, ed. John 
Nichols (London, 1828), I, 90-93. Eller and the author of the 
article on Roger Manners, fifth Earl of Rutland, in The Dictionary 
of National Biography are in error when they state that Ben Jonson's 
The Gypsies Metamorphosed was played before the King on this 


occasion. The performance at Belvoir was on a later occasion. See 
Herford and Simpson, Ben Jonson (Oxford, 1925-52), VII, 541. 

45. John le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, continued by T. DufFus 
Hardy (Oxford, 1854), III, 457. 

46. The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, IV, 479. 

47. Four such meetings during Fleming's ministry are recorded: 1 July 
1584; 7 June 1585, at Mr. Landes' house, Mr. Lewis being Speaker 
and Mr. Farrar Moderator (the 31st meeting); 8 May 1587; and 
5 May 1589. See Roland G. Usher, The Presbyterian Movement in the 
Reign of Queen Elizabeth As Illustrated by the Minute Book of the Dedham 
Classis, 1582-89 (Camden Society, 1905). 

48. Usher is the authority for this statement. An even earlier synod is 
recorded as having taken place at Cambridge in 1582. Cooper, 
Annals, II, 390. 

49. There are contemporary data in The Wonderful Discouerie of the 
Witchcrafts of Margaret and Phillip Flower, printed by G. Eld for 

J. Barnes, 1619; and in a ballad entitled Damnable Practises of Three 
Lincolne-shire Witches loane Flower and Her Two Daughters, printed by 
G. Eld for John Barnes, 1619. More modern accounts appear in 
Nichols' Leicester ( The Wonderful Discouerie is printed as appendix IX 
to volume II, part i); in Filer's Belvoir; and in the little pamphlet 
called The Church of St. Mary the Virgin Bottesford, Leics. and Its 
Monuments by M. P. Dare (4th ed., 1953), appendix. Mrs. Hilda 
Lewis has written a historical romance entitled The Witch and the 
Priest (London, 1956) most of which consists of a weirdly fascinating 
series of conversations between Samuel Fleming and the ghost of 
Joan Flower, during the course of which she relates the chief inci- 
dents of her devil-ridden career to the horrified priest. Esther 
(Hester) Fleming Davenport appears as a character. Mrs. Lewis has 
dedicated her book to Samuel Fleming's successor at Bottesford, the 
Reverend Canon A. T. G. Blackmore. 

50. I am indebted to A. N. L. Munby, Esq., Librarian of King's Col- 
lege, for a transcript of a record by the eighteenth-century anti- 
quarian Anthony Allen. According to Mr. Munby, the phrase "in 
the Pulpit" is a later addition, not in Allen's hand. As to the date of 
Samuel Fleming's burial, Register A and Register B of Cottenham 
are in disagreement. A has 12 September, B has 13 September. The 
Reverend Mr. Maurice informs me that Register B is probably a 
copy of Register A; the former date is therefore to be preferred. 

51. Nichols, Leicester, II, i, 91. As early as 1592 payments were made in 
behalf of the Earl of Rutland for masonry, carpentry, and stone- 


work around the windows of a hospital at Bottesford. The Manu- 
scripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, vol. IV. What connection 
there may have been between this hospital and Fleming's founda- 
tion is unknown to me. There may have been none. Fleming's 
Hospital existed not long ago, commemorating its founder by its 
name; the Reverend Mr. Wood has informed me that it has now 
been turned into a block of four flats. Samuel Fleming's other 
foundation was a bridge, still known by his name, traditionally said 
to have been built after he came on one occasion into danger of 
drowning in the river which it crosses. 

52. Nichols, Leicester, II, i, 91. 

53. Administrations of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Principal 
Probate Registry, Somerset House, London. The record is difficult 
to read. One Edward Scot is named as Esther Davenport's husband, 
and she is named as "Hestere Dauenporte ah'<7s Scote." This must 
be an error, since John Knowells lived until 1 646 (unless this is an 
instance of the possession of alternate names not unknown among 
the Elizabethans, or unless this is a version of the general legal 
name, like John Doe, John-a-nokes, and John-a-stiles). 

54. British Museum, Royal MS There is a reprint in Nichols, 
The Progresses and Public Processions oj Queen Elizabeth (London, 1788- 
1821). The edition of 1823 dropped the reprint and made only a 
passing mention of these poems. The work is commented upon by 
H. C. Maxwell Lyte in A History oj Eton College, 1440-1884 (London, 
1889), p. 165. 

55. His brother Abraham, on the other hand, was actually employed 
in the printing business. See Miss Dodson's article referred to above, 
and W. E. Miller, Abraham Fleming, Elizabethan Man of Letters: a 
Biographical and Critical Study, University of Pennsylvania disserta- 
tion, 1957, chapter I. 

56. Mozley, p. 148. 

57. "... Samuell and Abraham Flemings both liuing, brethren by 
one bellie, and Londoners borne. Quorum prior historiolam quondam de 
regimine Mariae nuper Anglorum principis, eamque elegantem, Latino 
idiomate (nunquam tamen excusam) contexuit: posterior in hisce chronicis 
detergendis atque dilatandis, vna cum vberrimorum. indicum accessione, 
plurimum desudauit. . . ." A translation of the Latin part of the note: 
'. . . theformer of whom composed in the Latin language a certain 
little history of the reign of Mary late prince of the English, and an 
elegant one too (but never printed) ; the latter labored mightily in 
correcting and adding to these chronicles, together with the addi- 
tion of very useful indexes. . . .' Chronicles (1587), III, 1590. 


A Middle English Lyric in Manuscript 

John Morford* 

IN THE Rare Book Collection of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania Library is a fifteenth-century manuscript of the 
Sermones dominicales of John Felton, vicar of St. Mary Magdalene, 
Oxford (fl. 1430) containing a short poem beginning "I ham as I 
ham and so will I be" written in on a blank flyleaf. The manu- 
script is classified as "Lat. 35."^ The poem (f. 3^ is in a hand 
distinct from the text, and of somewhat later date (ca. 1500- 
1525). It is written in a "Bastard" hand current in England from 
the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth-century. ^ 

* Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. This article is the result of a paper given 
in a graduate course of the History Department. 


The poem, written in sixteen irregular lines, is not of great 
importance, but nevertheless deserves publication. The words in 
our transcription have been checked in the Oxford English 

I ham as I ham & so will I be. but howe I 
ham none knowithe truly 

I lede my lyff in differntly. I meane nothinke 
but honeste. thought folkx lugge diversly 
Yet I ham . .' as I ham & so will I be. 

Sum therebe that dothe myserowe. ful of 
pleasure & ful of woo. yet for all that no 
thinke they knowe. ffor I ham as I ham 
wher ev[er] I goo. 

Sum therebe that dothe delyght. to lugge 
folkx for envy & spythe. but whether 
they luge wronge or ryght. I ham as I 
ham & soo will I wryght. 

A dew sewte Syster & neve departings 
is A payne But myrthe renewithe 
when Louyars meate Agen. 

The reading is fairly obvious and it seems unnecessary to add a 
transcription into modern English. We trust that the reading of 
the rather careless hand has been transcribed correcdy. 

Versification. The meter is of the "four-stress" variety, common 
during the Middle English period and later. ^ If the uneven lines 
of the text are ignored, and proper attention is given to Middle 
English pronunciation, scansion is quite obvious, e.g., 

I lede my lyff in differntly 

S*" ■tmf ^rr ^ir 

I meane nothinke but honeste. 
thought folkx lugge diversly 

English poetry, of course, is "accentual" (unlike the poetry of 
French or Latin) but does not require the simple doggerel of 


stressed and unstressed syllables like the above. The next line 
scans : 

Yet I ham . . as I ham and so will I be. 

All the lines are paired in the common rhymed couplets of 
Middle English poetry. The rhyme sequence, somewhat rarer 
but not uncommon, is, by stanza, aa, aaaa, bbbb, cccc, dd. That 
the piece is divided into stanzas is itself interesting because "the 
appearance of the stanza in English verse is always the sign of 
foreign influence."^ 

Identification. The poet has not been identified. The piece is not 
listed in Brown and Robbins' Index oj Middle English Verse (1943) 
or in Brown's earlier Register oj Middle English Religious and 
Didactic Verse (1916, 1920). A similar poem, beginning "I am as 
I am," and with various almost identical lines, but more exten- 
sive (40 lines) appears in British Museum Ms. Add. 17492 on 
folio 85. This ms. is dated in the Catalogue of Additions (London, 
1868, p. 23) "earlier half of XVIth century" and contains poems 
by Sir Thomas Wyatt, Lord Surrey, Anthony Lee, Richard Hat- 
field and others. Careful examination of this ms. and collation 
was not attempted in this brief article: it might provide a clue to 
the authorship and tradition of our poem. 

Conclusion. The evidence seems to indicate that the poem was 
composed between the middle of the fifteenth-century (the manu- 
script) and ca. 1510 (the approximate date when it was added to 
the codex) . The poem appears to be of the genre of the carol which 
flourished in the later Middle Ages. The typical carol had uni- 
form stanzas and began with a burden, or refrain, that was 
repeated after each stanza. Such carols were often a part of a 
ring-dance in which the leader sang the stanzas and a ring of 
dancers responded with the burden.^ The author, or the scribe 
who copied it, was probably Northumbrian or Scottish in origin 
and could well have been familiar with the French language and 
poetry. The poem is a kind of comic lover's lament. Its tone is 
light. Whether or not the poet expects a reconciliation, he is a 
happy philosopher: ". . . mirth is renewed when lovers meet 



1 . A more complete description of the manuscript, Sermones dominicales, 
prepared by Dr. Norman Zacour, Custodian of Manuscripts, will 
appear in the forthcoming Supplement to the de Ricci Census of 
Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. 

2. Cf. Hilary Jenkinson, The Later Court Hands in England (Cambridge, 
1927), p. 51. Examples of a Bastard hand of the mid-fifteenth cen- 
tury, resembling in detail our text, are shown in Edward M. 
Thompson, Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography (New York, 
1893), p. 312, and in Walter W. Skeat, Twelve Facsimiles of Old 
English Manuscripts (Oxford, 1892), pi. 11. 

3. Erasure. 

4. See Raymond M. Alden, English Verse (New York, 1903), p. 62. 

5. Ibid. 

6. For a complete description of this type of medieval lyric poetry see 
Richard Leighton Greene, The early English Carols (Oxford, 1935). 


Notes on the Eighteenth-Century German 
Translations of Swift's Gulliver's Travels 

Matti M. Rossi* 

AN interesting aspect of the eighteenth-century Hterary scene 
XjL in Europe was the tremendous impact of EngHsh Hterature, 
particularly the novel, on other European literatures. In fact, in 
France around the middle of the century Montesquieu pub- 
lished a booklet protesting this influence. In Germany, where 
national literature was long neglected and ignored until the 
Sturm und Drang movement and classicism changed the situation 
completely, the effect was even more deeply felt. 

Of the individual works that created a veritable new species of 
literature in Germany, De Foe's Robinson Crusoe must be men- 
tioned first. This book was so popular in German translation that 
numerous imitations soon appeared. These more or less successful 
imitations of their famous predecessor, called "Robinsonades," 
were incredibly popular. One of the most famous was Joachim 
Heinrich Campe's Robinson der Jungere first published in 1779. By 
1891 it had reached its 115th edition and had been translated 
into twelve different languages including classical Greek. ^ 

In view of the fact of the popularity of the "Robinsonades" it 
is surprising that a similar work such as Jonathan Swift's Gul- 
livefs Travels did not attract somewhat comparable attention in 
eighteenth-century Germany. It seemed to pass almost unnoticed 
and was nearly forgotten by the end of the century. Gulliver'' s 
Travels had a much wider popularity elsewhere in Europe. There 
were twenty-nine editions in French translation in the eighteenth- 
century, twelve of them published at The Hague, 1727-1787 and 
seventeen at Paris, 1727-1799. In Zurich Johann Jakob Bodmer 
and Johann Jakob Breitinger kept alive the interest in the early 
eighteenth-century tradition to which Gulliver's Travels belongs. 
In Germany, Teerink lists only nine German editions in the 
period 1727-1788, exclusive of collected works editions. In the 

* Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. This article is the result of a study in a 
graduate course of the English Department. 


chief German literary capitals the early rationalistic eighteenth- 
century tradition was giving way to sentiment and sentimentality. 
Leipzig and Hamburg were busy welcoming Tristram and 
Pamela, and the complicated multi-level technique used by 
Swift lost its appeal, if it ever had any. 

Nevertheless, Gulliver's Travels fills a chapter in the annals of 
German literature and clarification is needed about the early 
German translations of the Travels. This study is the result of the 
examination of the Swiftiana in the Rare Book Collection of the 
University of Pennsylvania Library, notably the superlative 
Swift materials in the Teerink Collection. 

The first German translation of the Travels followed hard on 
the heels of the appearance of the first French editions published 
at The Hague in January 1727 and at Paris in March. The 
enthusiastic reception of these French editions led to the appear- 
ance of the first German edition later the same year. Karl 
Goedeke's Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung gives no 
help in the problem of the early German translations of the 
Travels. The information in Hanns W. Eppelsheimer's Handbuch 
der Weltliteratur is incorrect. The latter states that the first German 
translation was made by D. Pott in 1798.^ It is obvious from an 
examination of the materials in the Teerink Collection and in the 
bibliography of the writings of Swift published by Teerink that 
the Pott translation had three predecessors. The first German 
translation was based on the French text published at The Hague 
in 1727 and its language shows signs of carelessness. Also, it con- 
tains some curious vernacular mistakes. The translator is reputed 
to have been J. Ch. Corner and this translation went through 
three editions: the first in 1727-1728; the second in 1733-1735; 
and the third in 1739-1746, all in three volumes. In 1739 there 
was a re-issue of volumes one and two of the third edition, but 
according to Teerink, this was a different printing. The collations 
and the plates are the same, but the title-pages are different.^ All 
of these editions were printed in Hamburg and Leipzig. 

The first German translation based on the English original was 
not made until 1756, when Johann Heinrich Waser, the deacon 
of Winterthiir, began his translation of the collected works of 
Swift. Waser obviously knew his English, and he was able to 


appreciate Swift as a writer of ability. But when Waser started 
his work it was already too late. The high tide of neoclassicism 
had passed, and something new was in the air. Between 1756 and 
1766 Waser translated into German the collected works of Swift. 
His publisher also produced a special issue of Gulliver's Travels in 
1761. This came out simultaneously with the fifth volume of the 
collected works which also contained Gulliver's Travels. A second 
edition of the special edition appeared in 1762 and a third in 

The next translation in German, according to Teerink, was 
made in Copenhagen in 1786 by Karl Heinrich Krogen. This 
translation is ignored by Price in his English-German Literary 
Influences, Bibliography and Survey. Whether there were more edi- 
tions of this version, Teerink gives no information. 

In 1788 R. Riesbeck translated Gulliver's Travels into German 
and this translation was published in Zurich. It has no preface 
and no comment on previous versions, but as far as I can see, 
Riesbeck follows the Waser version very closely. The changes in 
the text are of no great importance. 

The last German translation of Gulliver's Travels in this series 
came out in 1800-1801 as the fifth volume of Swift's collected 
works by D. Pott. Eppelsheimer gives 1798 as the date, Price 
states 1800-1801, but adds in brackets 1798-1801, probably re- 
ferring to the entire period within which all five volumes were 
published. After this translation the interest in Swift grew weaker 
and Gulliver's Travels tended to be regarded as primarily a story 
for children. 

The 1761 Translation 

In 1761 Gulliver's Travels appeared both as a special issue and 
as the fifth volume of the collected works. For many reasons this 
translation by Waser is of particular interest. Teerink's note on 
the separate issue runs as follows: 

This is a separate issue of Vol. V of Satyr ische und ernsthafte Schriften, 
1761. The text (1-462) is the same printing (only: 'V. Theil.' removed 
from foot of first page of each new sheet), but the prefatory matter 
(I-XVI) is new. — In the "Vorrede" the translator condemns preceding 
translations as having been based on a French translation (the 'Hague' 


one), in its turn based on the English original which had been tampered 
with in the press, so that they contained double mistakes; whereas he 
praises his own, translated direct from the English text corrected by the 
author himself (Faulkner's?). This translator knows how to appreciate 
Swift: he defends Swift's intentions in Gulliver's Travels against stupid 
critics, i.e. Orrery and Young. ^ 

In this note there are certain points which require closer exami- 
nation. The prefatory matter, the "Vorrede," is not, strictly 
speaking, new. It is obviously abridged and adapted from a 
longer and more circumstantial preface which occurs in the fifth 
volume of the German edition of the collected works. Moreover, 
the "Vorrede" in the separate issue seems to have been provided 
by the publishers for purely advertizing purposes. For more 
systematical information we are referred to the original of the 
"Vorrede," titled "Schreiben des Herrn Breitenfels an 
Herrn****." Herr von Breitenfels appears to be a pseudonym of 
the translator, Waser. We do not know to whom it is addressed, 
but this preface is one of the very few direct statements on 
Gulliver'' s Travels in eighteenth-century German criticism. In this 
preface Waser defends Swift in very sharp terms. He is particu- 
larly insistent against the tendency of labeling Gulliver's Travels as 
children's literature. He also has a word for those whose attitude 
toward Swift is colored by moral or religious prudery. The most 
interesting part of the preface is the author's discussion of Young's 
and Orrery's views on the subject. Teerink bluntly refers to 
Young and Orrery as "stupid critics." Waser was equally op- 
posed for, from his standpoint, their attitude prevented all sensi- 
ble discussion of Swift's work. However, after refuting the 
critiques of Young and Orrery he apologizes like a real gentle- 
man. On the whole Waser's preface is a very interesting piece of 
criticism and it shows in high relief the eighteenth-century Ger- 
man attitude towards the intellectual neoclassical tradition of 
English literature. 

The Original of the 1761 Translation 

In the unabridged preface to the 1761 translation Waser, in 
one of his footnotes, indicates the non-Swiftian passage added by 
Benjamin Motte to the first English editions. This passage in the 


Motte editions was in Chapter 6, "Voyage to the Houyhnhnms," 
in which Queen Anne is said to carry the state affairs without "a 
corrupt ministry." ("I told him, that our She Governor or Queen 
having no Ambition to gratify, no Inchnation to satisfy of extend- 
ing her power to the injury of her neighbours . . ."). He also 
mentions a few additional corruptions; in chapter 3, "Voyage to 
Laputa," and in chapter 5, "Voyage to the Houyhnhnms." The 
recognition of these corruptions indicate that the translator was 
aware of the superior quality of the so-called Faulkner editions 
and knew where to turn to find the best English edition on which 
he could base his translation. In the prefatory notes of the 1761 
German edition appears "Captain Gulliver's Letter to his Cousin 
Sympson." This letter does not appear in any of the first three 
German editions, based on the French text published at The 
Hague in 1727. It does appear for the first time in the 1735 
Faulkner English edition of the Travels. Thus, we can establish, 
with a fair degree of certainty, that the original of the 1761 
German translation of Gulliver's Travels was the celebrated 
Faulkner edition. In his note on the subject Teerink places a 
question mark after the Faulkner edition as the text on which the 
Waser translation was based. I see no reason now why we cannot 
disregard this question mark and label the Faulkner edition as 
the English text on which the Waser translation was based. 


1 . Lawrence M. Price, English-German Literary Influences, Bibliography and 
Survey (Berkeley, California, 1919), p. 175. The most often quoted 
authority on Swift in German literature is probably Vera Philippovic, 
Swift in Deutschland (Agram, 1903). Price bases his account of Swift's 
position in German literature on this source. He also quotes from 
Emil Flindt, Uber den Einfluss der englischen Litteratur auj die deutsche des 
18. Jahrhunderts (Charlottenburg, 1897). 

2. Eppelsheimer, Hanns W., Handbuch der Weltliteratur (Frankfurt am 
Main, 1947-1950), I, 298. 

3. H. Teerink, A Bibliography of the Writings in Prose and Verse of Jonathan 
Swift (The Hague, 1937), p. 216. 

4. Ibid. 


Library Notes 

Various Gifts 

Albrecht, Otto E.— 27 pieces of choral music: 162 songs for voices 
and piano. 

Brinton, Jasper Y. — Smith, William, Prayers for the Use of the Phila- 
delphia Academy, 1753. (2 copies). 

Evans, Mrs. James D.— Smollett, Tobias, Expedition of Humphry 
Clinker, illustrated by Cruickshank, 1836. Smollett, Tobias, Adventures of 
Roderick Random, 1857. Smiles, Samuel, Brief Biographies, 1861. Also, 
about 100 prints of One Thousand and One Nights in black and white, 
and colors. 

Evans Dental Museum — On permanent loan, a collection of 275 
Bibles, ancient and modern, 16th through 19th centuries. Special ar- 
rangements for this loan were made by the Trustees of the Evans Dental 

Foster, Richard W.— Wadsworth, Frank W., The poacher from 
Stratford, 1958. 

Georgia, University; Library— Lecture notes in manuscript taken 
by, or in the possession of, Thomas Hamilton (University of Pennsyl- 
vania Medical School, 1820). Barton, Benjamin Smith, "Lecture notes 
on materia medica," ca. 1810. "Lectures on surgery" delivered by 
Philip Syng Physick and J. Syng Dorsey, 1810. (2 volumes). Rush, 
Benjamin, "Lecture notes upon the institutes and practice of medicine 
and upon clinical cases," ca. 1812. 

U. S. National Archives— Guides to German records microfilmed at Alex- 
andria, Virginia, no. 1-6, 1958. 

Speiser, Raymond A.— Forty bound volumes of Theatre Arts Maga- 

U. S. Atomic Energy Commission — The Geneva presentation volumes 
presented by the USA at the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses 
of Atomic Energy, September, 1958. 

Ward, Philip H., Jr. — Collection of mounted stamps; box of auto- 
graphs and photographs; box of Anthony Wayne letters; 4 boxes of 
books on philately. 

We gratefully acknowledge other gifts from the following faculty 
members: Derk Bodde, Andres Briner, Paul Gemmill, Edmund L 
Gordon, William E. Miller, Heinz Moenkemeyer, Otakar Odlozilik, 
A. G. Reichenberger, A. N. Richards, and Otto Rosenthal. 

J. M. G. 


The John Louis Haney Collection 

For many years a devoted friend of the University, Dr. Haney has 
presented a substantial part of his excellent library of English and 
American literature to the Library. An alumnus of the class of 1898, 
Dr. Haney received his Ph.D. in 1901 and an LL.D. in 1939 from the 
University. From 1900 to 1920 he was a member of the English faculty 
of Philadelphia's Central High School; as president of that institution 
from 1920 to 1943, he established his reputation as an educator of the 
highest rank. Dr. Haney's accomplishments as a teacher are reflected in 
his scholarly writing, particularly his critical and bibliographical work 
in English literature. His colleagues in English studies continue to be 
grateful for his Bibliography of S. T. Coleridge, published in 1903, a pioneer 
work of lasting merit. 

Through Dr. Haney's generosity, over 2,000 volumes have been 
added to the Library, many of them now a part of the Rare Book 
Collection. Among them are first and rare editions of Coleridge, 
William Wordsworth, William Blake and Lord Tennyson. There are 
also rare volumes of bibliography and biography which are a welcome 
addition to the reference section of the Rare Book Collection. 

The books which will go into the general or reference collections are 
works of English and American fiction and poetry, valuable complete 
sets of an author's work, and general works of history and literature. 
The Library is particularly grateful to Dr. Haney for supplying us with 
fine sets of basic English literature reference works, an important acqui- 
sition as we contemplated the necessity of duplicating many of these 
titles for the extended services of the new library. 

N. M. W. 

An Important Purchase 

The purchase of the Joseph E. Gillet Library was reported in the 
preceding issue. Since the Friends of the Library have undertaken to 
aid in defraying the cost of this acquisition a more detailed explanation 
of the content of this collection is in order. Dr. Arnold Reichenberger 
of the Romance Languages Department has supplied the following 

Professor Joseph E. Gillet, who died on June 4, 1958, was primarily 
concerned with the literature of the Spanish Renaissance, and par- 
ticularly with sixteenth-century Spanish theatre. His work was 
climaxed in a monumental edition of the Spanish dramatist Torres 
Naharro. It was planned in four volumes, three of which have been 
published. The fourth volume is now being edited for publication by 
Professor Otis H. Green. Volume three (Bryn Mawr, 1951) offers, in 
891 closely printed pages, an extensive commentary on the language 
and the historical and "costumbristic" background of an immensely 


difficult author who used other languages and dialects besides his 
native Castilian. Gillet's commentary is a storehouse of information 
on sixteenth-century Spanish language, folklore, and costumes. 

His library reflects these interests in Torres Naharro and the 
Spanish Renaissance in general. Its value consists in a unique collec- 
tion of dictionaries, Spanish and Portuguese proverbs, Renaissance 
editions of authors of poetic theory, works on the development of var- 
ious national literatures in South America, a number of single editions 
(sueltas) of seventeenth-century Spanish plays, and a few manuscripts. 

The collection has not only most of the bilingual and multilingual 
sixteenth- and seventeenth-century dictionaries such as Palet, Oudin, 
De las Casas, Toscanella, and De la Porte, some of which have not 
been utilized by Gili Gaya's Tesoro lexicogrdfico, but also a great num- 
ber of related peninsula bilingual dictionaries, such as Portuguese, 
Catalan, Mallorcan, Valencian, and Basque. Studies on regional and 
local speech, both peninsula and South American, are also repre- 
sented. This part of the collection offers unusual facilities — unique 
perhaps in this country — to study the extension of the Spanish 
vocabulary in time and space. 

In the section of proverbs and anecdotes we may mention the joint 
edition of Nunez's Refranes o Proverbios and Mai Lara's Filosofia vulgar 
(Madrid, Juan de la Cuesta, 1619), Perez de Herrera's Proverbios 
morales (Madrid, 1732 [first 1618]), and a similar Portuguese one by 
Joseph Suppico de Moraes (1732), Esteso's collection of chistes and 
tonterias, and Garcia Malo's Voz de la naturaleza (Gerona, 1627 [vols, 
2-4]), likewise a collection of stories and jokes. 

In the field of Renaissance poetic theory we find the commentary 
by Robortelli on Aristotle's Poetics, a beautiful edition (Florence, 
1548); Petrus Victorius' Commentarii in Primiim Librum Aristotelis de 
Poetica, a fine (second) edition (Florence, 1573); Julius Scalinger's 
Poetices Libri Septem, ([Heidelberg] apud Petrum Santandreanum, 
1594); L6pez Pinciano, Philosophia Antigua Poetica (Madrid, Junti, 
1596 [first edition]); Cascales' Tablas Pokicas (Murcia, 1617 [first 
edition]); Jusepe Gonzalez de Sala's Nueva idea de la tragedia antigua in 
a carefully printed three-volume edition by the fine craftsman Sancha 
(Madrid, 1770); and Luzan's Poetica (Zaragoza, 1737 [first edition]). 

In the field of seventeenth-century Spanish drama the exceptional 
holdings of the University of Pennsylvania Library are further 
enriched by eight volumes of various single plays, both secular and 
religious, in Spanish and Catalan. 

Another welcome addition from the Gillet Library are numerous 
rare works on the development of several national literatures, or 
genres of it, in South America, such as Enrique de Olavarria y 
Ferrari's Reseha historica del teatro de Mexico (Mexico, 1895 [second 
edition]) in four volumes. 


The acquisition of Professor Gillet's library provides the student 
with opportunities to investigate Spanish lexicography and folklore, 
particularly proverbs and tales, not heretofore enjoyed and difficult 
to find assembled in any one library. His collection on Renaissance 
poetic theory enriches our Rare Book Collection. His holdings on 
Latin American literature are welcome to round out our already 
impressive treasures in Spanish literature, which until now were 
concentrated on peninsula Spanish. 


In order to make a report for the forthcoming Third Census of Fifteenth 
Century Books in American Libraries a thorough check has been made of the 
Library's incunabula collection, housed mainly in the Rare Book Col- 
lection and the Lea Library. Our holdings have tripled since 1 940 (the 
date of Stillwell's Second Census), growing from 139 to 415. Care has been 
taken to add to the collection titles and editions of textual significance 
not readily accessible in or near the Philadelphia area. Especially wel- 
come are the 70 items that do not appear in Stillwell at all. Among 
those that are not listed there, and apparently not recorded elsewhere, 
are a Latin edition of Lucian's Charon, probably printed at Leipzig by 
Martin Landsberg about 1492; Dante, // Credo, Florence, Morgiani and 
Petri, between 1495 and 1500; Le Fevre d'Etaples, Introductiones in 
diver SOS libros Aristotelis, Paris, G. Marchand, 12 October, 1497; Cura 
pastor alis, printed at Ulm, probably by Johann Reger about 1498. Also 
unrecorded is an edition, in Italian, of the romance Bueve de Hantone, 
or Bevis of Hampton, Venice, Maximus de Butricis, 18 June 1491; the 
Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke lists seven other editions of this text in 
Italian (one of them by de Butricis, 7 January, 1491) but locates only 
one copy of each. An interesting broadside, the type of which has not 
been identified, is a proclamation of Emperor Maximilian I dated 23 
July, 1495, establishing the prerogatives of Eberhardt I, duke of 

Some other rare titles and editions not listed in Stillwell are: the first 
French translation of Aristotle's Ethica Nicomachea, by Nicolas Oresme, 
Paris, Antoine Verard, 1488 (GW 2381); Boccaccio's De Claris Mulieri- 
bus, in German, Ulm, Johann Zainer, 1473, with 76 woodcut illustra- 
tions (GW 4486); Filippo Buonaccorsi, Attila, Venice, Antonio da 
Strada, ca. 1489, of which only one other copy is recorded {Indice 
generale 2233); De quantitate sillabarum, Paris, Mittelhus, ca. 1488, an 
edition noted only in Claudin, Histoire de Pimprimerie en France, II, 8; a 
German book on the art of letter writing, Formulare und Tiltsch rethorica, 
Strassburg, Johann Priiss, 1486 (Copinger 2562); a bull of Pope 
Innocent VIII, Memmingen, ca. 1485 (GW, Einblattdrucke 728); and 
Maphaeus Vegius, Dialogus inter Alithiam et Philaliten, Cologne, Ulrich 
Zell, ca. 1470 (Voullieme 1202). L. W. R. 


Pirandello Collection 

After Professor Domenico Vittorini's death on March 9, 1958, several 
of his former students desired to contribute a permanent memorial on 
a modest scale. Dr. Bodo Richter, who took over the Italian literature 
courses during the academic year 1958-59, thought it would be a 
worthwhile tribute to increase the University Library's holdings of 
works by and about Luigi Pirandello, Professor Vittorini's favorite 
author. More than one hundred dollars was collected towards this goal 
and twenty-five volumes were purchased in Italy, France, England, 
and the United States. Most of the books were privately bound and 
each one contains a special bookplate which is reproduced below. 

The material ranges from Pirandello's doctoral dissertation pre- 
sented at the University of Bonn in 1891 to the American libretto 
adaptation of his Six Characters in Search of an Author. The opera had its 
premiere on April 24, 1959. A few of the volumes are duplications such 
as a four-volume set of all of Pirandello's plays. Only one important 
study is lacking, Luigi Baccolo's Pirandello, but this will be added soon. 

The collection was presented at the May meeting of the Circolo 
Italiano of the University of Pennsylvania. It makes our Library 
virtually complete in works that have been published by and about the 
Sicilian dramatist. The students are rightfully proud that their own idea 
could be brought to such a successful realization. 


of their revered 
teacher and friend 


from a group of his students 
during the years 1949-1958